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rt.B. 



MERC 




LETIN 



A Periodical Record of New Discoveries, Introductions, or Applications 

of Medicinal Chemicals. 

mDBBlBH Moved by Professional — not Business- Interest. HHHt 

No. 1 of Vol. 1. DARMSTADT-LONDON-NEW YORK. Feb., 1888. 

Publication-office in New York City: 73 William St.— P. O. Box No. O 173. 
Subscription : — $0.50 per year. — Publication : — Bi-monthly. — (Extra numbers as occasion may require.) 



Strophanthus (Tincture); and Strophanthin Merck (Gluco 
side). — A New Heart Remedy {in two forms). 

Effects. The action of these preparations on the heart, as hitherto ob- 
served, is said to be an exceedingly beneficial one. A constant and 
rapid subsidence of an excited pulse is brought about within a few 
minutes ; and neither the digestive troubles nor the cumulative 
effects so often consequent upon Digitaline medication have been 
observed, even after several weeks' use of the Strophanthus prep- 
arations. 

Discov- Medical science is indebted to Prof. Fraser for the first accounts, 

ery. ' 

given in the year 1871, of Strophanthus, and of the toxical princi- 
ple contained in the seeds of this plant. 

History. Two years later, ' ' Just's Botanic Annual " published a more 
detailed description of the plant. According to it, Strophanthus is 
an exogenous creeper, belonging to the Apocynece ; climbing the 
highest trees, and indigenous to the valley and mountain forests 
situated above the Victoria Falls of the Zambesi. 

Descrip- The fruit of the plant ripens in June. It is a pod, growing 
up to 12 inches in length, composed of a rough external and a 
somewhat leathery internal shell, containing as many as 200 seeds. 
The seeds are about 15 to 20 mm. long, 4 mm. broad, and 1 
mm. thick. At one end they taper off to a fine point, culminating 
in a stalk nearly 9 cm. long, the upper third of which forms a 
hairy tuft ; these hairs are about 6 cm. long, of a silky gloss, delicate 
and brittle, and protrude on all sides in the shape of a sprinkling- 
whisk. At their base, the seeds are obtuse, of a yellowish-white color 
and covered with a layer of soft, silky and closely adherent hair. 



tion. 




MERCK'S BULLETIN. 



At present, there are two kinds of these seeds in the market, a 
greenish-brown and a white variety. The former, said to be the 
fruit of Strophanthus hispidus, was defined as Kombe Seed (Parent 
plant : Strophanthus Kombe Oliver) by Prof. Oliver, of Kew. The 
question of the identity of these seeds does not appear, however, 
to be definitely settled as yet ; and the possibility is therefore not 
excluded that the white seeds are the real Kombe seeds, from which 
the natives prepare the Kombe Poison. 

The seeds contain, besides fixed oils and albumen, that inten- 
sive poison which, by the name of Kombe, Inee or Onage, has 
been used for a longtime in West and Central Africa for poisoning 
arrow-heads. 

A green tincture, containing the active principle in solution, 
may be extracted from the seeds by means of strong alcohol. If, 
previous to this, the fixed oil of the seeds be extracted by ether, 
this ethereal solution will likewise contain a certain percentage of 
Strophanthin ; and to this fact, in part, the slight efficacy of the 
commercial alcoholic tincture of Strophanthus is attributed. 

The Strophanthin produced by me from Strophanthus seed is Stroph- 
a white crystalline powder, melting at about 365 ° F., evaporating 
without residue, and showing very intensively the reactions of 
Elborn and Helbing. 

Both Strophanthus tincture and Strophanthin are employed in 
medicine. 

The tincture is of a pale yellow color, has a peculiar penetrat- 
ing odor, and a persistent bitter taste ; the dose is of 5, 10 up to 20 
drops, twice a day, to be taken either pure or in Aqua Laurocerasi. 

The single dose of Strophanthin is placed by British physicians Dose - 
at o. 005 of a grain. In the Vienna Imperial Public Hospital, it 
is used to the extent of ^ to 3^ of a grain per diem, ordinarily 
dissolved in Aqua Laurocerasi, and given a drop at a time. 



E. MERCK. 



6^* P /ease Preserve the Single Numbers of 
the ' ' Bulletin " until Receipt of Binder, which 
will be sent Gratis to Each Subscriber. 



/ 
/ 



4^fJ MA AAU f JuH ) m^ 




Merck sTdulletin. 



A Periodical Record of New Discoveries, Introductions, or 
Applications of Medicinal Chemicals. 



No. 3. 



DARMSTADT # NEW YORK. 



Feb. 21, 1888. 



CONTENTS. 

Page. 

i» Erythrophleine Hydrochlorate Merck,— A New Local Anesthetic. i 

2. Urethan, — As a Hypnotic in Infant Practice i 2 

1. StroPhanthus,— Lately found to be a Cholera Specific. .*.;... 3 

4. The Phtalates,— New Alkaioidal Saltsv— Especially Hypodermic .'.... ..u... 4 

5. Chromic Acid, — Wholly Free from Sulphuric Acid. — Escharotic I 6 

6. Cocaine Muriate Merck,— Bearing All Tests.... 6 

7; Chloral Hydrocyanate,— A Stable Prussic-acid Dilution... 7 

8. Amylen Hydrate, — An Innocuous Hypnotic 7 

9. Cedrine,— The Bitter Principle of Cedron-seeds 7 

10. Ephedrine (Hydrochlorate),— A Mydriatic Alkaloid ; . . 7 

11. Iodine Trichloride,— Highly Efficient Antiseptic (Disinfectant) , 8 

12. Phen-acetine, — A New Antipyretic ... 8 

13. Condurangine, — The Active Principle of Condurango-bark 8 

14. Vieirine,— Febrifuge, from Cuprea-bark u . 8 

15. Sapotoxine, — from Saponine, — from Quillaia-bark 8 

16. Phloridzine, — and Phloretine,— from Apple-tree root-bark 8 



Erythrophleine Hydrochlorate (Merck).— A New 

Local Anesthetic (according to Dr. L. Lewin). 

Erythrophleine is the Alkaloid of Erythrophleum-bark (Sassy- 
bark), from Erythrophleum Guineense Don,— Erythrophleum Jtidiciah 
Procter. -The tree belongs to the family of Leguminoscs and Ccesal- 
pmiacecB, and is indigenous to the west coast of Africa, Senegambia, 
Sierra Leone, etc. 

Erythrophleine has been produced in my Laboratories since some 
considerable time, and is supplied by me to the Trade generally 
since 1 88 1, in form of the easily soluble Hydrochlorate. 

The experiments, as carried out with my Hydrochlorate of Ery= 
throphleine, by l)rs. Harnack and Zabrocki, concerning its physio- 
logical properties, show a decided action on the heart (similar to that 
of Digitalis); but at the same time it has a spasmodic effect; it 
produces convulsions such as Picrotoxine would do, and this has so 
far forbidden its internal Use. More important, however, than these 
discoveries, has proved a third effect, peculiar to this drug, 



.,--- 



for the discovery of which we are indebted to Dr. Lewin, Lecturer 
at the University of Berlin, who has experimented with my Ery- 
throphleine Hydrochlorate and has elicited for it much admiration 
in the medical world. 

According to him, Erythrophleine Hydrochlorate Merck pos- 
sesses 

LOCAL ANESTHETIC QUALITIES, 

similar to those of Cocaine, and though anesthesis would ensue some 
15-20 minutes later than is the case with Cocaine, it will be much 
more intense, lasting up to 2 days. 

Dr. Lewin has experimented with my Hydrochlorate of Ery- 
throphleine .(Solutions^of 0.25, of o. 1 and 0.05) on rabbits, dogs, 
cats, etc., and has obtained a long-lasting and thorough anesthesis of 
the cornea, conjunctiva, etc., without altering the size of the pupils. 

Three drops of a 0.1-% solution introduced into the eye have 
been sufficient to produce a complete effect ; the same strength of 
solution, injected subcutaneously, has brought about thorough an- 
esthesis, admitting of extensive manipulations on and near the spot 
of injection. 

It appears to be impracticable to use stronger solutions than the 
one indicated (o. 1 %) ; as otherwise irritations would invariably re- 
sult. 

Solutions should not be kept in stock, but always prepared afresh. 

There is no doubt that this preparation willprove a highly valuable 
and permanent addition to our Materia Medica. Such a valuable 
drug deserves to be universally tested, and details regarding its thera- 
peutic effects may be expected ere long. 

Urethan (Ethylo-Urethan), chem. pure, (Merck): 

It has been known for some time that this compound is an 
excellent Hypnotic, causing absolutely no after-effects or symptoms of 
intolerance. In doses of 1-2 grammes the hypnotic effect never 
fails, even in the insomnia of consumptives. The sleep induced 
by it bears entirely the character of natural sleep. Prof. Dr. von 
Jaksch in Vienna demonstrated and published these facts as long 
as two years ago. — -Some authorities, however, employ as high as 
3-4 grammes. 



But what has been more recently developed by experience 
(although even then recommended in theory by Dr. von Jaksch), 
is the most highly valuable, indeed quite unique, usefulness of 
Ethylo-Urethan in 

INFANT PRACTICE. 

Prof. Dr. Demme in Berne (Switzerland) made a series of 
comprehensive experiments with it in the Jenner Hospital for 
Children. His report says: 

"As a simple Sedative, it was given to children from I to 3 years 
old in single doses of o. 1 0.3, and daily dose of 0.5— 1 gramme, accord- 
ing to age. 

" For producing the real Hypnotic effect, the smallest dose for the 
ages of 12 — 18 mos. was 0.25; for ages 2 — 3 years, 0.5 gramme. For 
older children the hypnotic dose was 1 gramme; at 10 — 14 years even 
1.5 — 2.0 — 2.5 grammes. 

' ' The Urethan was mostly administered in 20 — 30 grammes of 
Water, with the addition of as much Sugar as the degree of sensitiveness 
of the patient's taste seemed to need. 

" It was throughout zuell borne, and, with but few exceptions, had the 
desired effect. 

" In view of the innocuousness of this Urethan, it is likewise very 
eligible in Infantile Eclampsy . Doses of 0.15— 0.30 gramme, in a few 
spoonfuls of sugared Water, will in children of 3—10 months delay the 
recurrence of the convulsions after the first 30—60 minutes, and, by 
repetition, prevent their recurrence thereafter.— Similar results have also 
been obtained by enema, — o. 1 gramme to 10 grammes of Water,— repeated 
several times in quick succession." 



Strophanthus (Tincture), the New Heart Remedy (see 
my Bulletin No. 1), in its lately discovered character of a 

CHOLERA SPECIFIC. 

According to a report published in the Indian Medical Gazette at 
Calcutta (Oct. '87), Dr. Sanders presented to the Calcutta Medical 
Society an abstract of 17 cases of Asiatic Cholera successfully treated 
by him with Tinctura Strophanti^, in the Mago Hospital. The ab- 
stract gives the following symptomatic outline : 

'•Quick recovery from the stage of collapse; a gradual and slow rise of 

temperature; quick return of the pulse at the wrist; quick stoppage of the 
vomit ;— the return of normal urination, — were so remarkable that 



Dr. Jones, who at first was very skeptical, became fully convinced 
of the efficacy of the remedy," etc., etc. 

"Adults were given repeated doses of 10 drops each, Children of i\ 
years were given 3 drops. A boy of 8 got 4 drops. In one case of 
profound collapse, the dosing was continued for four hours at the rate of 
one drop every five minutes, and then at the rate of a drop every ten 
minutes ; no other application whatever was used ; the recovery was 
complete," 

The Phtalates.— New Alkaloidal Salts.- Of Perma- 
nent Character, and Freely Soluble in Water. — Important especially 
for Hypodermic Use. 

As may be known to most medical men, a new organic salt of 
Morphine — the Phtalate —was introduced a short time ago, to 
replace the Muriate, Sulphate and many other Morphine salts, to 
which various practical objections had been evolved in the course 
of their therapeutical exhibition. 

The rapid and signal success achieved by this jpreparation has 
induced me, on similar grounds, to prepare combinations of some 
others of the favorite Alkaloids with Phtalic acid, so that now I am 
ready to supply the Trade not only with 

Morphinse phtalas {Morphine Phtalate), 
but likewise with . 

Cocainse phtalas {Cocaine Phtalate), and 
Caffeinae phtalas ( Caffeine Phtalate) ; 
the latter two being 

ENTIRELY NEW PREPARATIONS, 

never before offered in this market. 

(A Phtalate of Strychnine can, however, not be made. ) 
The eminent points of superiority which have been found to 
distinguish Morphium Phtalate from the older Morphia salts are very 
likely to be found also distinctive characteristics of the above- 
named new Phtalates; viz., of Cocaine Phtalate and of Caffeine 
Phtalate. 

These points of superiority are evinced principally in two 
directions : 

1) Permanency ) of the Phtalates, as .against the older 

2) Solubility ) salts. 



Combinations of Organic Bases with Mineral Acids (as in the 
case of Morphia Hydrochlorate and Sulphate, for instance) are liable 
to suffer from a tendency toward decomposition in various ways. They 
are prone to show slightly acid reactions after being kept in solution 
some time, though originally produced as neutral salts; they are 
furthermore apt to undergo organic decomposition through the 
growth of certain fungi in their solutions, etc. From these 
drawbacks the Phtalates are reported to be free. 

But the property of the Phtalate salts most valuable to the medi- 
cal practitioner, as compared with the salts of other, and especially 
of Mineral acids, is their far higher degree of Solubility in Cold Water. 
Morphia Hydrochlorate, for instance, is soluble in 25 parts of 
water; Morphia Sulphate in 14.5 parts; and Morphia Phtalate in 
about 5 parts. Moreover, any surplus of this salt in proportion to 
the menstruum does not crystallize from the solution, but is depos- 
ited at the bottom of the vessel in form of an oily liquid, thus sep- 
arating at once and wholly from the concentrated solution; while 
in the case of crystallizing salts small crystals are liable to remain 
suspended in the liquid. The value of such peculiar properties of 
the Phtalates, especially for Hypodermic exhibition, is too apparent 
to need comment. . 

Morph. Phtalic. comes in beautiful, transparent, glassy Scales ; 
thus affording a ready means of distinguishing it at a glance from 
the more innocent salts (of Quinine, etc. ), with which fatal con- 
fusions have sometimes occurred in the case of the Muriates, Sul- 
phates, and others. 

Cocainum Phtalicum ( C 17 H 21 N 4 . C 8 H 6 4 ) is a colorless viscid 
fluid, very readily soluble in Water and in Alcohol. The solutions 
show an acid reaction . 

Cajfeirium Phtalicum (Q H ln N 4 2 . Q H 6 4 . H 2 O) is a white 
amorphous solid, of soft, friable consistency; it is easily soluble in 
5 parts of Water, also in hot Alcohol. The solutions have an acid 
reaction. , v " 

These salts will be put on the market at living prices, and I trust 
that the therapeutic experiments, which, no doubt, will soon be made 
with the interesting new compounds, may demonstrate a special field 
of usefulness for them, as has already been done in the matter of 
Morphia Phtalate. • 



Merck's Absolutely Pure Chromic Acid,— wholly 
free from Sulphuric Acid. — This is now prepared in two forms — 
crystals and sticks. The eminent value of this preparation of un» 
equaled purity may appear from the fact that all the so-called 
"medicinally pure" makes of Chromic Acid in the market 
contain Sulphuric Acid enough to make them easily deliquescent 
(in some cases as high as 7 per cent. ). This circumstance renders 
•all such grades of ' ' Chromic Acid " wholly inapplicable, in the 
efficient solid form, as a Caustic in the Ukr us, Trachea, Larynx, 
the posterior portion of the Pharynx, etc., where the adjacent healthy 
parts cannot be protected from the corrosive action of the deliques- 
cent salt — My Acidum Chromicum puriss. 

DOES NOT DELIQUESCE 

in the course of the operation ; and a salt possessing this qualifi- 
cation is the only grade adapted for the surgical uses described. — - 
A 10-per-cent solution of my Absolutely Pure Chromic Acid in 
Hydrochloric Acid is not rendered turbid by the addition of a 
Baryum Chloride solution, — a most conclusive test! 



Cocaine Muriate— (Merck) : 

By a newly discovered process of mine, the preparation of this 
salt has now been so much improved that its grade of purity and 
permanence are unattained by any other make of Cocaine Muriate 
I have been able to obtain for comparison. This new make of 
mine bears in absolute perfection the severest tests hitherto devised, 
for freedom from organic impurities, and for exact constitution in 
accordance with its formula. 

Among these tests are: the one recommended by Prof. Maclagan, - 
through Ammonia ; and the intensified Permanganate test, which is exe- 
cuted as follows : 

O.I gramme Cocaine Muriate ; dissolve in 5 cubic centimeters 

Water ; add 2 drops dilute Sulphuric Acid ; then add 1 drop Potassa 

Permanganate solution of i:ico. 

My Cocaine Hydrochlorate, tested in solution as above, remains of a 

beautiful purplish-blue color J or an hour ; while other makes- sometimes 

discolor instantly, or in less than a minute ! 



Chloral Hydrocyanate, cryst. — (Nitrile of Tri-Chloro- 
Lactic Acid). — White translucent rhombic prisms; soluble in 
Water, Alcohol or Ether; melting between 61 and 65 C; wholly 
volatilizable. — Odor of Hydrocyanic Acid and Chloral. 

Excellent substitute for Bitter- Almond and Cherry-Laurel 

Waters, both of which, on keeping, always deteriorate in substance 

and effect. — Chloral Hydrocyanate, on the contrary, is a highly 

stable compound ; even the aqueous solution keeps for a length of 

time. 

Therapeutic effect, same as of Hydrocyanic (Prussic) acid. Dose 

determinable from the following figures : — 6.46 parts, by weight, of Chlo- 
ral Hydrocyanate correspond to one of Anhydrous Hydrocyanic Acid ; 
a solution of 0.065 g of the salt in 10 g of Distilled Water corresponds to 
the officinal Bitter-almond Water of the German Pharmacopoeia, which 
is 1: 1000. 



Amylen Hydrate f pure medicinal. — (A tertiary Amylic 
Alcohol: Di-methylo-ethylo-Carbinol.)— Boiling-point, ioo° C ; 
Specific gravity, 0.81. 

A highly eligible Hypnotic, of reliable efficiency, and hardly 
any effect on the heart-movement. 

Dose for adults, 3-5 grammes. Administration, internal or by 

enema. 



Cedrine. — Bitter principle from the seed of Simaba 
Cedron Planch. (Simarubeae. ) 

Faintly yellowish, transparent crystals ; easily soluble in Water, 
less so in Alcohol. Wholly volatilizable.— Highly toxical ! 

The Cedron seeds are highly valued in their native countries (New 

Granada, Columbia, etc.) as a remedy against serpent-bites. They are 

likewise used in Yellow fever, Intermittent fever, and Digestive troubles. 

— Vaillant has successfully used them in Hydrophobia. 



Ephedrine Hydrochlorate, cryst. — Alkaloid from 

Ephedra vulgaris, var. helvetica. 

Colorless needles ; soluble in 4 parts Water ; easily soluble in 
Alcohol. — Acts mydriatically ! v 



1 



8 

Iodine Tri- chloride.— Antiseptic and Disinfectant. 

— Highly efficients such, through the liberation of Chlorine, whose 
nascent energetic effect is still further enhanced by the presence 
of the Iodine. 

An orange-red powder, whose odor strongly irritates the mucous 
membranes, and which should therefore be kept for exhibition in 
(frequently renewed) solution.— Usual dilution: t: 1200. 



Phen-acetine. — (Para-Acet-phenetidine.-)— A new Anti- 
pyretic. — Colorless, inodorous, insipid crystals; slowly soluble 
in Water, readily so in Alcohol. — Melting-point, 132. 5 C— Single 
dose: 0.5 — 0.6 — 0.7 gramme. 



Condurangine.— Glucoside from Condurarigo-bark — 

Gonolobus cundurango (Mata-perro). —Used in Gastric diseases, Can- 
cer, etc. — Amorphous powder;- soluble in Water, Alcohol or 
Chloroform. 

Vieirine. — Febrifuge, — highly valued as such in the Bra- 
zils, — from the bark of Remijia vellozii D. C. (Cuprea-bark. ) 



Sapotoxine. — A Colloid substance. — Fractional derivative 
of Saponine, according to Robert's formula. — The toxic principle 
of Quillaia-bark. —White, amorphous powder ; readily soluble in 
Water or Alcohol. 



Phloridzine.— Glucoside from the root-bark of the Apple or 
Pear-tree. — Also, its fractional derivative Phloretine {Phloretic 
Acid): — fine crystalline scales ; hardly soluble in Water, readily 
so in Alcohol or Ether. 

E. MERCK, 

Manufacturing Chemist to the Medical Profession, 
DARMSTADT. *' NEW YORK. *-' LONDON. 

73 WILLIAM STREET. 




MERCYS 1 BULLETIN 

A Periodical Record cV$4^B®^Bi^fntroductions, or Applications 

of MedicihaTchemicals. 

Moved by Professional - not Business- Interest. 



ITo. 2 of Vol. 1. DARMSTADT-LONDON-NEW YORK. April, 1888. 

Publication-office in New York City: 73 William St.— P. O. Box No. O 173. 



Subscription .-—#0.50 per year .-Publication .—Bi-monthly. -(Extra numbers as occasion may require.) 

CONTENTS. 

Page. 

1 . Erythrophleine Hydrochlorate M erck,— A New Local Anesthetic 3 

2. Urethane,— As a Hypnotic in Infant Practice , 4 

3. Strophanthus,— Lately found to be a Cholera Specific s 

4. The Phtalates,— New Alkaloidal Salts. -Especially Hypodermic 1 6 

5. Chromic Acid,— Wholly free from Sulphuric Acid.— Esckarotic !.... . 8 

6. Cocaine Muriate Merck,— Bearing ail Tests \ g 

7. Chloral Hydrocyanate,— A Stable Prussic-acid Dilution o 

8. Amylene Hydrate,— An Innocuous Hypnotic 

9. Cedrin,— The Bitter Principle of Cedron-seed 



10. Ephedrine Hydrochlorate,— A Mydriatic Alkaloid-salt 9 

1 1 . Iodine Trichloride,— Highly Efficient Antiseptic (Disinfectant) IO 

12. Phen-acetin,— A New Antipyretic IO 

13. Condurangin,— The Active Principle of Condurango-bark IO 

14. Vieirin,— Febrifuge, from Cuprea-bark . IO 

15. Sapotoxin,— from Saponin,— from Quillaia bark IO 

16. Phlorizin,— and Phloretin,— from Apple-tree root-bark . IO 



Erythrophleine Hydrochlorate (Merck).-A New 

Local Anesthetic (according to Dr. L. Lewin). 

Erythrophleine is the Alkaloid of Erythrophleum-bark (Sassy- 
bark ; Mancona-bark), from Erythrophlenm Guincense Don, Ery- 

throphleum Judiciale Procter.-- The tree belongs to the family of 
Leguminosce (genus of Ccesalpiniacecs), and is indigenous to the west 
coast of Africa, Senegambia, Sierra Leone, etc. 

Erythrophleine has been produced in my Laboratories since some 
considerable time, and is supplied by me to the Trade generally 
since 1881, in form of the easily soluble Hydrochlorate. 

The experiments, as carried out with my Hydrochlorate of Ery- 
throphleine, by Drs. Harnack and Zabrocki, concerning its physio- 
logical properties, show a decided action on the heart (similar to that 
of Digitalis) ; but at the same time it has a spasmodic effect ; it 
produces convulsions such as Picrotoxin would do, and this has so 
far forbidden its internal use. More important, however, than these 
discoveries, has proved a third effect, peculiar to this drug, 



Entered at the Post-Office, New York City, as Second-Class Mail Matter. 



MER CK \S{ B UL& E TIN. 



for the discovery of which we are indebted to E)r. Lewin, Lecturer 
at the University of Berlin; who has experimented with my Ery- 
throphleine Hydrochlorate and has elicited for it much admiration 
in the medical world. 

According to him, Erythrophleine Hydrochlorate Merck pos- 
sesses 

LOCAL ANESTHETIC QUALITIES, 

similar to those of Cocaine, and though anesthesis would ensue some 
15-20 minutes later than is the case with Cocaine, it will be much 
more intense, lasting up to 2 days. 

Dr. Lewin has experimented with my Hydrochlorate of Ery- 
trophleine (Solutions of 1 in 4; 1 in 10; 5 in 100) on rabbits, dogs, 
cats, etc.; and has obtained a long-lasting and thorough anesthesis 
of the cornea, conjunctiva, etc., without alterimg the size of the pupils. 

Three drops of a 0.1-% solution introduced into the eye have 
been sufficient to produce a complete effect ; the same strength of 
solution, injected subcutaneously, has brought about thorough an- 
esthesis, admitting of extensive manipulations on and near the spot 
of injection. 

It appears to be impracticable to use stronger solutions than the 
one indicated (o. 1%) ; as otherwise irritations would invariably re- 
sult. 

Solutions should not be kept in stock, but always prepared 
afresh. 

There is no doubt that this preparation will prove a highly 
valuable and permanent addition to our Materia Medica. Such a 
valuable drug deserves to be universally tested, and details regarding 
its therapeutic effects may be expected ere long. 



Urethane (Ethyl- Ur ethane), chem. pure, (Merck): 
It has been known for some time that this compound is an 
excellent Hypnotic, causing absolutely no after-effects or symptoms 
of intolerance. In doses of 15-30 grains the hypnotic effect 
never fails, even in the insomnia of consumptives. The sleep 
induced by it bears entirely the character of natural sleep. Prof. 
Dr. von Jaksch in Vienna demonstrated and published these facts 
as long as two years ago. — Some authorities, however, employ as 
high as 45-60 grains. 



y 



MERCK'S BULLETIN. 5 



But what has been more recently developed by experience 

(although even then recommended in theory by Dr. von Jaksch), 

is the most highly valuable, indeed quite unique, usefulness of 

Ethyl- Ur ethane in 

INFANT PRACTICE. 

Prof. Dr. Demme in Berne (Switzerland) made a series of 
comprehensive experiments with it in the Jenner Hospital for 
Children. His report says : 

"As a simple Sedative, it was given to children from 1 to 3 years 
old in single doses of i\ — 5 grains, and daily dose of 7 — 15 grains, accord- 
ing to age. 

" For producing the real Hypnotic effect, the smallest dose for the 
ages of 12 -18 mos. was 4 grains ; for ages 2 - 3 years, 7 grains. For 
older children the hypnotic dose was 15 grains; at 10 — 14 years even 
20 — 30 — 37 grains. 

" The Urethane was mostly administered in 5 to 8 drams of Water, 
with the addition of as much Sugar as the degree of sensitiveness of the 
patient's taste seemed to need. 

"// was throughout well borne, and, with but few exceptions, had the 
desired effect. 

" In view of the innocuonsness of this Urethane, it is likewise very 
eligible in Infantile Eclampsy. Doses of 2 — 4J grains, in a few 
spoonfuls of sugared Water, will in children of 3 — 10 months delay the 
recurrence of the convulsions after the first 30 60 minutes, and, by 
repetition, prevent their recurrence thereafter.— Similar results have also 
been obtained by enema, — i\ grains in 160 minims of Water, — repeated 
several times in quick succession." 



Strophanthus (Tincture), the New Heart Remedy (see 
my Bulletin No. 1), in its lately discovered character of a 

CHOLERA SPECIFIC. 

According to a report published in the Indian Medical Gazette at 
Calcutta (Oct. 'Sj), Dr. Sanders presented to the Calcutta Medical 
Society an abstract of 17 cases of Asiatic Cholera successfully treated 
by him with Tinclura Sirophanthi, in the Mago Hospital. The ab- 
stract gives the following symptomatic outline : 

" Quick recovery from the stage of collapse; a gradual and slow rise of 
temperature; quick return of the pulse at the wrist ; quick stoppage of the 
vomit ; — the return of normal urination, — were so remarkable that 



MERCK'S BULLETIN. 



Dr. Jones, who at first was very skeptical, became fully convinced 
of the efficacy of the remedy," etc., etc. 

"Adults were given repeated doses of 10 drops each. Children of z\ 
years were given 3 drops. A boy of 8 got 4 drops. In one case of 
profound collapse, the dosing was continued for four hours at the rate of 
one drop every five minutes, and then at the rate of a drop every ten 
minutes ; no other application whatever was used ; the recovery was 
complete." 

The Phtalates.— New Alkaloidal Sato.*.— Of Perma- 
nent Character, and freely Soluble in Water. — Important especially 
for Hypodermic Use. 

As may be known to most medical men, a new organic salt of 
Morphine — the Phtalate — was introduced a short time ago, to 
replace the Muriate, Sulphate and many other Morphine salts, to 
which various practical objections had been evolved in the course 
of their therapeutical exhibition. 

The rapid and signal success achieved by this preparation has 
induced me, on similar grounds, to prepare combinations of some 
others of the favorite Alkaloids with Phtalic acid, so that now I am 
ready to supply the Trade- not only with 

Morphinae phtalas {Morphine Phtalate), 
but likewise with 

Cocainae phtalas {Cocaine Phtalate)., and 

Caffeinae phtalas {Caffeine Phtalate \\ 

the latter two being 

ENTIRELY NEW PREPARATIONS, 

never before offered in this market. 

(A Phtalate of Strychnine can, however, not be made.) 
The eminent points of superiority which have been found to 
distinguish Morphium Phtalate from the older Morphia salts are very 
likely to be found also distinctive characteristics of the above- 
named new Phtalates ; viz. , of Cocaine Phtalate and of Caffeine 
Phtalate. 

These points of superiority are evinced principally in two 
directions : 

1) Permanency ) of the Phtalates, as against the older 

2) Solubility J salts. 



MERCK'S BULLETIN. 



Combinations of Organic Bases with Mineral Acids (as in the 
case of Morphia Hydrochlorateand Sulphate, for instance) are liable 
to suffer from a tendency toward decomposition in various ways. They 
are prone to show slightly acid reactions after being kept in solution 
sometime, though originally produced as neutral salts; they are 
furthermore apt to undergo organic decomposition through the 
growth of certain fungi in their solutions, etc. From these 
drawbacks the Phtalates are reported to be free. 

But the property of the Phtalate salts most valuable to the medi- 
cal practitioner, as compared with the salts of other, and especially 
of Mineral Acids, is their far higher degree of Solubility in Cold Water. 
Morphia Hydrochl orate, for instance, is soluble in 25 parts of 
water; Morphia Sulphate in 14.5 parts; and Morphia Phtalate in 
about 5 parts. Moreover, any surplus of this salt in proportion to 
the menstruum does not crystallize from the solution, but is depos- 
ited at the bottom of the vessel in form of an oily liquid, thus sep- 
arating at once and wholly from the concentrated solution ; while 
in the case of crystallizing salts small crystals are liable to remain 
suspended in the liquid. The value of such peculiar properties of 
the Phtalates, especially for Hypodermic exhibition, is too apparent 
to need comment. 

Morph. Phtalic. comes in beautiful, transparent, glassy Scales; 
thus affording a ready means of distinguishing it at a glance from 
the more innocent salts (of Quinine, etc.), with which fatal con- 
fusion have sometimes occured in the case of the Muriates, Sul- 
phates, and others. 

Cocainum Phlalicum (C 17 H 21 N0 4 . C 8 H 6 4 ) is a colorless viscid 
fluid, very readily soluble in Water and in Alcohol. The solutions 
show an acid reaction. 

Caffeinum Phlalicum (C 8 H 10 N 4 2 . C 8 H 6 4 . H. 2 O) is a white 
amorphous solid, of soft, friable consistency ; it is easily soluble in 
5 parts of Water, also in hot Alcohol. The solutions have an acid 
reaction. 

These salts will be put on the market at living prices, and I trust 
that the therapeutic experiments, which, no doubt, will soon be made 
with the interesting new compounds, may demonstrate a special field 
of usefulness for them, as has already been done in the matter of 
Morphia Phtalate. 



MERCK'S BULLETIN. 



Merck's Absolutely Pure Chromic Acid,— wholly 
free from Sulphuric Acid. — This is now prepared in two forms, — 
crystals and sticks. The eminent value of this preparation of un- 
equaled purity may appear from the fact that all the so-called 
"medicinally pure" makes of Chromic Acid in the market 
contain Sulphuric Acid enough to make them easily deliquescent 
(in some cases as high as 7 per cent.). This circumstance renders 
all such grades of ' ' Chromic Acid " wholly inapplicable, in the 
efficient solid form, as a Caustic in the Uterus, Trachea, Larynx, 
the posterior portion of the Pharynx, etc., where the adjacent healthy 
parts cannot be protected from the corrosive action of the deliques- 
cent salt. — The Acidum Chromicum puriss. Merck 

DOES NOT DELIQUESCE 

in the course of the operation ; and a salt possessing this qualifi- 
cation is the only grade adapted for the surgical uses described. — 
A 10-per-cent. solution of this Absolutely Pure Chromic Acid in 
Hydrochloric Acid is not rendered turbid by the addition of a 
Barium Chloride solution, — a most conclusive test! 



Cocaine Muriate -(Merck): 

By a newly discovered process of mine, the preparation of this 
salt has now been so much improved that its grade of purity and 
permanence are unattained by any other make of Cocaine Muriate 
I have been able to obtain for comparison. This new make of 
Cocaine Muriate bears in absolute perfection the severest tests hith- 
erto devised, for freedom from organic impurities, and for exact 
constitution in accordance with its formula. 

Among these tests are : the one recommended by Prof. Maclagan, — 
through Ammonia ; and the intensified Permanganate test, which is exe. 
cured as follows : 

1 \ grains Cocaine Muriate ; dissolve in 80 minims Water ; add 
2 drops dilute Sulphuric Acid ; then add one drop Potassa Perman- 
ganate solution of 1 : 100. 
Cocaine Hydrochlorate Merck, tested in solution as above, remains of 
a beautiful purplish-blue color for an hour ; while other kinds sometimes 
discolor instantly, or in less than a minute ! 



MERCK'S BULLETIN. 



Chloral Hydrocyanate, cryst — (Nitrile of Tri-Chloro- 
Lactic Acid.)— White translucent rhombic prisms; soluble in 
Water, Alcohol, or Ether ; melting between 140 and 149 F ; 
wholly volatilizable. — Odor of Hydrocyanic Acid and Chloral. 

Excellent substitute for Bitter-Almond and Cherry-Laurel 
Waters, both of which, on keeping, always deteriorate in substance 
and effect. — Chloral Hydrocyanate, on the contrary, is a highly 
stable compound ; even the aqueous solution keeps for a length of 
time. 

Therapeutic effect, same as of Hydrocyanic (Prussic) acid. Dose 
determinable from the following figures : — 6.46 parts, by weight, of Chlo- 
ral Hydrocyanate correspond to one of Anhydrous Hydrocyanic Acid ; 
a solution of 1 grain of the salt in 160 minims of Distilled Water corre- 
sponds to the officinal Bitter-almond Water of the German Pharmaco- 
poeia, which is 1:1000. 



Amyleno Hydrate, pure medicinal— (Tertiary Amylic 
Alcohol: Di-methylo-ethylo-Carbinol. ) — Boiling-point, 212 F; 
Specific gravity, o. 8 1 . 

A highly eligible Hypnotic, of reliable efficiency, and hardly any 
effect on the heart-movement. 

Dose for adults, 45-75 grains. Administration, internal or by 

enema. 



Cedr in -—Bitter principle from the seed of Simaba 
Cedron Planch. (Simarubeae). 

Faintly yellowish, transparent crystals ; easily soluble in Water, 
less so in Alcohol. Wholly volatilizable. — Highly toxical/ 

The Cedron seeds are highly valued in their native countries (New 

Granada, Colombia, etc.) as a remedy against serpent-bites. They are 

likewise used in Yellow fever, Intermittent fever, and Digestive troubles. 

— Vaillant has successfully used them in Hydrophobia. 



Ephedrine Hydrochlorate, cryst.— Alkaloid-salt 

from Ephedra vulgaris, var. helvetica. 

Colorless needles ; soluble in 4 parts Water ; easily soluble in 
Alcohol. —A els mydrialically ! 



io MERCK'S BULLETIN. 

Iodine Tri-chloride.— Antiseptic and Disinfect- 
ant. — Highly efficient as such, through the liberation of Chlorine, 
whose nascent energetic effect is still further enhanced by the 
presence of the Iodine. 

An orange-red powder, whose odor strongly irritates the mucous 
membrane, and which should therefore be kept for exhibition in 
(frequently renewed) solution. —Usual dilution: i: 1200. 



Phen-acetin. — (Para-Acet-phenetidin.) — A new Anti- 
pyretic. — Colorless, inodorous, insipid crystals ; slowly soluble 
in Water, readily so in Alcohol. — Melting-point, 270. 5 ° F. — Single 
dose 7—9 — 11 grains. 



Condurangin. — Glucoside from Condurango-bark. — 

Gonolobus cundurango ( Mata-perro ) . — Used in Gastric diseases, 
Cancer, etc. — Amorphous powder ; soluble in Water, Alcohol or 
Chloroform. 

Vieirin. — Febrifuge, — highly valued as such in the Brazils, 
— from the bark of Rcmijia vcllozii D. C. (Cuprea-bark). 



Sapotoxin. — A Colloid substance. —Fractional derivative of 
Saponin, according to Robert 's formula. — The toxic principle of 
Quillaia-bark. — White, amorphous powder; readily soluble in 
Water or Alcohol. 

Phlorizin. — Glucoside from the root-bark of the Apple- or 

Pear-tree. — Also, its fractional derivative Phloretin (Phhretic 

Acid): — fine crystalline scales; hardly soluble in Water, readily so 
in Alcohol or Ether. 

E. MERCK. 



MERCK'S 




LLETIN 



A Periodical Record of I^^'Disp^^ffi^'^^troductions, or Applications 

' Lis. 






by Pi 



Moved toy Professional — not Bush 



1 



Interest. 



= 



No. 3 of Vol. 1. DA^S^DI^UQJIDON -MWORK. June, 18 )S. 

Publication-offib^i^NE^ Y-qrk City: 73JV^iam St-jjjJpTo. Box No. O 173. 



Subscription: — $0.50 per year. — Publication: — Bi-monthly.— (Extra numbers as occasion may require.) 



COPJTEPiTS. Page. 

Acid, Oxy-naphthoic, Alpha-. — Powerful A?iti-zymoiic ; Disinfectant; Anti-Phylloxerin 12 

Alantol. — Internal Anti-bacterial and Antiseptic, reported as superior in, energy to Helenin 12 

Amyl Phenate, cryst. — A new Hypnotic .12 

Anthrarobin. — No-n-irritant Succedaneum for Chrysarobin (" Chrysophanic Acid ") 12 

Atropine Sulphate Merck, white, cryst. — Absolutely free from any Acid or Alkaline reaction, 

by severest test !... ~, . . . 13 

Bismuth Albuminate. — Gastric and Intestinal Anti-spasmodic ' 13 

Brom-phenyl-acet amide, Mono-. — Sedative and Antifebrile : 13 

Bursa pastoris ; Bursic Acid, etc.— Reported to be unequaled Hemostatics 13 

Caffeine Cinnamate 14 

Caffeine Hydrobromate, cryst. — A true Salt 14 

Caffeine and Soda, Citrate. — A new true double Salt 14 

Cannabine, Pure Alkaloid. [Not "Cannabin"!) — Anew, innocuous Hypnotic! 14 

Cocaine Ppienate. —Local Anesthetic , 14 

Creolin. — A remarkable, non-toxic, non-irritant Deodorizer, Disinfectant and Antiseptic 14 

Creolin-Mollin. — Non-toxic Gynecological Lubricant and Disinfecting Detergent 15 

Ephedrine Hydrochlorate, cryst. — (Additional to former Bulletin.) 15 

Ethyl Bromide. — A once famous, then prematurely discarded, but now rehabilitated, Anesthetic. .15 

Guaiacol, chemically pure. — Especially prepared for Medicinal use 17 

Hydrastine Nitrate 17 

Hydro-Berberine.— Malarial, Gastric and Milt remedy... ..17 

Iodoform Powder, non-conglutinative.— (A pretended "novelty."') ....17 

Iodole. — Non-toxic and Inodorous Succedaneum for Iodoform. — (External Antiseptic.) 17 

Lamine Sulphate. — New Alkaloid salt, from Lamium album. — Pov/erful subcutaneous Hemostatic. .18 

Magnesium Salicylate.— In Typhus.— Less styptic than Bismuth Salicylate 18 

Manganese Silicate, Bi-. — [Enamel material.] 18 

Mercury Citrate. x 8 

Mercury Gynocardate. —Anti-syphilitic 18 

Mercury Salicylate.— A new favored by Aranjo in Dermato-Syphilidology 18 

Muira puama. — Said to surpass Damiana as an Aphrodisiac ! 18 

Neriin ) Two new Glucosides, from Nerium Oleander L., — the one with Digitalein -action; the 

Oleandrin J other like Digitalin ...: , 19 

Ophioxyline, — a new toxic principle (Alkaloid?), from Ophioxylon serpentinum 19 

Ormosine. — A new Alkaloid, reputed to have an Opium-like action (?) ' 19 

Papayotin, pure.— "Vegetable ~Pe-psin."—Membra?ie-solvent in Diphtheria 19 

Potassium Cinnamate.— From Pure Cinnamic Acid .- 20 

Resorcin Dry-Spray Powder, chem. pure.— New form, for Inhalations.— (Diphtheria. ) 20 

Saccharin, — the Non-fertnentable Sweetener! — In Diabetes, etc. — (Sugar Substitute.) 21 

Sapotoxin. — Heart-Poison.— (Additional to former Bulletin.) 22 

Silver and Ammonium, Fluoride. — [ Chromo-phoiographic material.] 22 

Simulo, Tincture.— A desirable Anti-epileptic, Anti-hysteric, and Nervine Tonic 22 

Sodium Citrico-benzoate. — In Bronchitis, Asthma, etc , 22 

Sodium Hydroxide (Caustic Soda), pure, in drops. — A new form... 23 

Sodium Silico-fluoride.- Innocuous Surgical Antiseptic (non-toxic!) 23 

Sodium Sulphite, Benzoated.— Non-toxic and eminently powerful Surgical Antiseptic 23 

Sodium Vanadate, Bi-.— Very readily soluble. 23 



3- 

4. 

5- 

6. 

7- 
8. 

9- 
10. 



13- 
14. 

IS- 
16. 

17- 
■18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 
24. 
25- 

.25. 

27- 
28. 
.29. 

30. 
3i- 
32. 
33- 

34- 
35- 
I''-- 
37- 
38. 

39- 
.40. 
41. 
.42. 

43- 
.44. 

45. 



[over!] 



Entered at the Post-Office, New York City, as Second-Class Mail Matter. 



12 MERCK'S BULLETIN. 

Contents. — (Concluded.) Page. 

46. Sozo-Iodole. — A valuable Dermatological Antiseptic ! 23 

47. Sparteine, pure, syrupy. — Alkaloid from Broom. — A Narcotic! — In /fey* r/-affect ions 24 

48. Sparteine Hydriodate, — readily soluble (5 parts water). — Heart remedy. — New salt 24 

49. Spigeline. — The active principle of Spigelia manlandica. — Anthelmintic. (Ascaridesl ) 24 

50. Strontium Fluoride.— Inhalant in Laryngeal Phthisis 25 

51. Fulphonal — Anew, non-narcotic Hypnotic, especially in Nervous Insomnias 25 

52. Terpin Hydrate. — Succedaneum for Oil of Turpentine. — Expectorant ; Diuretic 25 

53. Zinc Gynocardate. — For Ointments in Eczema, Scabies, etc 26 

Acid, Oxy- naphthoic, Alpha-.— Anti-Zymotic, Disinfectant, 

and Anti-Phylloxerin. — White, inodorous, microcrystalline powder ; solu- 
ble in 30,000 parts of cold Water ; more readily soluble in aqueous solutions of 
Bi-carbonates, or of Ammonia, which then enter into combination with this 
acid. More easily soluble in Alcohol, Chloroform, Benzol, and Oils — both 
fixed and volatile. 

Its Anti-zymotic action is said to exceed that of Salicylic Acid 2& 5:1. 



»3 ( C 20 H 32 O ), — a Liquid Stearopten (Camphor), found beside 
Helenin (the solid Alant-camphor or Inula-camphor) in the root of Inula Hele- 
nium (Elecampane). — The boiling-point of Alantol is near 200° C. — Power- 
ful Internal Anti-Bacterial and Antiseptic. 

The therapeutic uses of Alantol are similar to those of Helenin, in diseases 
of the Air-passages and in Bronchio-pneumonia, also in Tuberculosis. 

Its action is reported to be materially more energetic than that of Helenin. — 
The dose is assumed to be the same ; that is : 0.01 gramme, about 10 times 
daily, in pills, powders or alcoholic draughts. — Fuller reports are expected. 



Amy! Phenate (Amyl-Pkenol), cryst.— (C 6 H 4 . OH. C 5 H„.)— A new- 
Hypnotic — Small white crystals; easily soluble in Ether and in Alcohol, in- 
soluble in Water.— Melting-point, 90-95 C; boiling-point, about 240 C. 



Anthrarobiro.— Innocuous Succedaneum for Chrysarobin. — A 

derivative from Alizarin or from Purpurin. — Yellowish to fawn-colored powder ; 
insoluble in Water, but soluble in dilute aqueous Alkaline solutions. 

The inflammatory irritation-symptoms accessory to the use of Chrysarobin (the 
so-called "Medicinal Chrysophanic Acid"), and which render its action so 
highly disagreeable and often dangerous, are said not to be entailed by 
Anthrarobin, even after many months' use. — Corresponding hereto, however, 
stands a slower and more gradual remedial action on the part of the new prepa- 
ration. Very favorable results are, nevertheless, reported of it. 



MERCK'S BULLETIN. 13 

Atropine Sulphate i^erck, white, cryst.;— perfectly neu- 
tral. — This particular make of Atropine Sulphate possesses the rare quality, so 
highly desirable for Medical use, of being Absolutely Neutral, even in 
most concentrated solution. There are other makes that show neutral 
reaction in weak solutions ; but an Atropine Sulphate that will show no trace 
of either Acid or Alkaline reaction when tested in the most concentrated form is the 
only grade to which the qualification of being " Medicinally Pure " can 
justly be ascribed. 

The test of a soluble salt for " Perfect Absence of both Acid and Alkaline 
reaction in most concentrated solution " is most conclusively made by strewing a 
small pinch of the dry salt on Test-paper which has previously been moistened 
with Water. — Atropine Sulphate Merck bears this test. 



Bismuth Albuminate. — Light, whitish powder. — Used with success 
in Gastric a?id Intestinal Spasms. 



Brom-phenyl-acet-amide, Mono-, (C 6 H 4 Br. NH. C 2 H 3 0). — 
It is supposed to combine the Sedative effects of Sodium Bromide and the 
Antifebrile ones of Phenyl-acet-amide, which two remedies have heretofore 
often been given in combination with good effect. — It has first been prepared 
by Cheyne (England). 

Bursa pastoris {Capsella B, p.), [Shepherd's Purse]. — Most effica- 
cious Hemostatic. — This plant, after enjoying high recognition from the 
Medical Profession during the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries, gradually fell into 
officinal disuse during the 18th, — continuing meanwhile, however, in uninter- 
rupted favor as a popular remedy in the families of the country folk. A few 
years ago, Dr. von Ehrenwall, of Ahrweiler, Germany, during his country 
practice, noticed the excellent styptic properties of Bursa in a ease of Menorrha- 
gia that had resisted all other medication. Dr. v. E.'s experiments, since insti- 
tuted, have demonstrated to his satisfaction that the dry herb is devoid of virtue, 
(which probably was the cause of its previous discontinuance in the pharmacies); 
but that the juice of the fresh herb is, beyond comparison, the most relia- 
ble Styptic known to the Materia Medica, — not even excepting Ergot. 

Since then, the Fluid Extract has been used (internally) in Hemorrhages 
of the Lungs, Chronic Hemorrhage of the Kidneys, and in such Uterine Hemor- 
rhages as justified the use of internal remedies. — The dose was of 3-4 table- 
spoonfuls per day, in a little Water. 



'4 



ME RCK'S B UL L E TIN. 



Meanwhile, Bursic Acid has been isolated from the herb by the phar- 
macist Bombelon, and clinical experiments, per os and subcutaneously, with this 
acid and its Alkali-salts are now in progress, in order fully to determine its effi- 
cacy and administration. 



Caffeine Cin nam ate.— White, fine powder; readily soluble in Water 
and in Diluted Alcohol ; aromatic odor. — 'Use similar to that of the Caffeine 
salts generally, — Whether it be a true salt, has not yet been satisfactorily deter- 
mined. 



Caffeine Hydrobromate Rflerck, cryst. — A true Salt, — 

that is, a definite, reliable, constantly uniform chemical combination,— -not a 
physical mixture of dangerously varying composition (such as has been often 
given for true Hydrobromate). 



Caffeine and Soda, Citrate. — A new true double salt, con- 
taining 52.5 % of Caffeine. 



Cannabine, Pure Alkaloid.— Innocuous Hypnotic! — (This 

wholly new preparation is not to be confounded with the Resinoid hitherto 
known as ( 'Cannabin ' ' / ) 

The Pure Alkaloid Cannabine is a brown liquid of syrupy consistency, 
which, in thin layers, is quite clear and transparent. It has the pronounced 
characteristic odor of Hemp. 

The effect of the Pure Alkaloid Cannabine is purely Hypnotic, and free from 
all deleterious accessory symptoms. 

Doses of 0.1-0.3 gramme are employed. 



Cocaine Phenate (Carbolate). — Colorless mass, of soft-extract consist- 
ency ; easily liquefiable by heat. Very readily soluble in Alcohol. Faint odor, 
resembling that of Phenol (Carbolic Acid). 

Used externally, to produce Local Anesthesia! 



Creolin, — from Coal-tar. — A non-toxic Deodorizer, Disinfectant, 
Anti-Bacterial, and Antiseptic, claimed to exceed Phenol (Carbolic Acid) in 
deodorizing efficiency, while being absolutely safe ! — Prof. Dr. Frohner, of the 



MERCK'S BULLETIN. * 15 

Royal Veterinary College at Berlin, pronounces it much preferable to the fol- 
lowing well-reputed agents : 

"Carbolic Acid, Creasote, Bismuth Subnitrate, Iodine Tincture, Naphthalene. " 
Dr. E. von Esmarch, of the Royal Hygienic Institute at Berlin, finds its 
Deodorizing power of supreme efficacy (beyond comparison with Carbolic Acid) ; 
and its Anti-bacteric, or Bactericidal, power, demonstrated in the form of Creo- 
lin-Soap, as 

" Decidedly superior to that of the Corrosive-Sublimate Soap prepared by the Royal 
Pharmacological Institute." 

— In Diphtheria and in Whooping-cough, remarkable success has been 
ascribed to the applications of Creolin by Spray Inhalation and by Gargle. 



Creolin-IVloinn {see "Creolin," above; and "Mollin," in Special 
Circular). — A superior, Non-toxic Gynecological Lubricant, and 

Disinfecting" Detergent for Obstetricians' hands, instruments, etc. . 

According to Prof. Dr. Esmarch and other surgical authorities, a 1-% prep- 
aration of Creolin possesses equal disinfectant power with a 1/10-% solution of 
Corrosive Sublimate. — Creolin-Mollin, being non-toxic and non-irritant, is, 
therefore, for many uses, — and especially so in Gynecology and Obstetrics, 
— decidedly preferable to the poisonous Sublimate solutions. 



Ephedrine Hydrochlorat©, cryst., {see former Bulletin !) is 

favorably reported-on by Dr. Scriba (of Tokio, Japan) in regard to its 
Ophthalmological usefulness as a Mydriatic. — Promises to command great 
interest. —Dose not yet known. 



EthyS Bromide 8¥lerck, chemically pure, (Hydrobromic Ether). 
— A " revived " Anesthetic. Especially adapted for small operations. — 
A colorless liquid, of agreeable odor; boiling at about 39 C. — Not readily 
inflammable. 

Ethyl Bromide has had a peculiar history. It was originally received 
(about 30 years ago), especially in France and in the United States, with high 
favor and marked hopes of its supplanting all other Anesthetics ; but in the 
course of time it dropped into desuetude, principally in consequence of disagree- 
able, and even fatal, peculiar toxic effects having several times been remarked as 
following its administration. It appears, however, from later researches (f. i., 
Dr. J. Asch, Berlin : Therapjufische Monatshefte, Feb. 1887), that those 



16 . MERCK'S BULLETIN. 

deleterious effects were unjustly ascribed to the Purs Bromide of Ethyl, — hav- 
ing been due to impurities derived from the ancient method of preparing 
it by the Phosphorus-Alcohol-Bromine Process, which had been in vogue 
almost since its discovery, and which is still in use for the Hydrobromic Ether 
intended for serving merely in the Technical Arts. — Langgaard and Traub 
have clearly traced the dangerous toxic properties of the ' ' Ethyl Bromide " thus 
prepared to certain Sulphur and Arsenic combinations derived from the crude, 
impure Phosphorus employed in that process. 

The Modern Process, consisting essentially of a reaction between Ethylo- 
Sulphuric Acid and Potassium Bromide, wholly obviates the objectionable 
features above described, and furnishes, when properly completed, a chemi- 
cally pure Bromide of Ethyl, which alone is fit for Medicinal use. — The 
Odor of Pure Ethyl Bromide, which should be of a pleasant, sweetish, Chloro- 
form-like character, is of itself a sufficient indication for rejecting all those 
preparations which have a pungent or repulsive smell, and which thereby show 
their impure composition. 

Pure Ethyl Bromide is an agent of eminent value to the Surgeon in 
small operations ; for it there does fully the service which would be done by. 
Chloroform (provided, Anesthesia not exceeding 1 5 minutes' duration be re- 
quired), without any of the risks always attached, more or less, to the use 
of Chloroform, — no observation of the H:arfs action by a second attending physi- 
cian being needed in the case of Ethyl Bromide. 

Anesthesia by Ethyl Bromide is of a shallower character than that by 
Chloroform,- — generally leaving both consciousness and muscular tension unimpaired, 
and reaching its zenith within about one minute, so that repeated administra- 
tion is necessary in order to make it continue for several minutes. But the 
inability to perceive painis nevertheless^^//*' secured during the period of its action. 

Recovery from this Anesthesia is very easy, and attended with hardly any 
nausea or dizziness, — the Ethyl Bromide being rapidly eliminated, principally 
through the lungs. 

Administration by mash, as with Chloroform : from 5 to $0 grammes per 
operation, according to duration required. 

The Chemically Pure Ethyl Bromide Merck has been used in vast 
numbers of Surgical operations of short duration, without ever failing, and with- 
out deleterious results being reported in any instance. 

It is also administered in Parturition, in Epilepsy, and in Hysteria. 

— Internal dose : 5-10 drops, on sugar or in capsules. 



MERCK'S BULLETIN, 17 

Cuaiacol, Chemically pure, {Mono-methyl-CatechoT). — This' Grade of 

Guaiacol is a new preparation, especially manufactured for Medicinal use / 

Sahli prescribes the following : 

Guaiacol, chem. pure, 1 to 2 grammes; Dist. Water 180 do. ; Alcohol 20 do. ; - to be 
put-up in dark glass; — tea- to' table-spoonful in a tumbler of Water, 2 to 3 times daily, 
after meals. 



HydrastSne Mitrate, cryst. — Yellow, crystalline granules; easily 
soluble in Water and in Alcohol. Melting-point, 120 C. 



Hydro™ Berbenne, — Faintly yellowish crystals, easily soluble in Al- 
cohol. — Principally used in Malarial fevers, Gastric disturbances, and Milt tumors. 



Iodoform Powder (medium), non-congSutinative ! -This 
peculiar form of Iodoform Powder, which will not cohere or conglutinate into lumps 
or balls, has recently been introduced as a "novelty" by others. — I have, how- 
ever, for many years previous furnished it, — so, for instance, to the Surgical 
Clinique of Heidelberg University. 



lodole [Teira-iodo-pyrrole — C 4 I 4 NH). — Light-yellowish-gray, fine 
and specifically light powder ; easily triturable between the fingers (similarly 
to Talcum venetum, and similarly adherent to the epidermis). Soluble in about 
5000 parts Water (a little more readily in Alkalized Water) ; or in three parts, by 
weight, of Alcohol, in which solution Water produces a finely subdivided, milky 
precipitation. (Glycerin does not cause such precipitation.) — The alcoholic 
solution must be prepared carefully with regard to temperature ; for at the 
boiling-point of Alcohol it begins to decompose the lodole. — Soluble, also in 
about its weight of Ether ; and in 1 5 parts of fatty oils. — Dry Iodole ( not in 
solution) bears the temperature of boiling Water without change; at 140-150° 
C, it decomposes. — It is tasteless and inodorous I 

Iodole, containing, as it does, nearly 8<p per cent, of Iodine, is, next 
to Iodoform, the strongest Iodine preparation extant ; it about equals 
Iodoform in Antiseptic power, but is preferable thereto in view of its 
Absence of Odor and of Toxic properties. 

Application — externally — in a great variety of Carcinomatous and other 
Morbid Tissue Degenerations, and Traumatic, Septic, Purulent and Catarrhal 
Processes (especially in those of a Venereal character), as a desirable General 
Succedaneum for Iodoform, either in substance as a Skin-powder, or as 



18 MERCK'S BULLETIN. 

. * , 

a lotion in Alcoholic or Ethereal solution, or with Collodion or Traumaticin, 
or as an ointment with fatty vehicles or Mollin, or in Plasters, or in Gauze. 

Iodole Solution (according to Mazzoni) : — Iodole i part by weight \ 
Alcohol 16 ; Glycerin 34 ; — dissolve. 

Iodole Gauze (for Antiseptic . Dressing)'.— Iodole 1; Resin (Colophonium) 1; 
Glycerin 1 ; Alcohol 10 ; — impregnate Sterilized Gauze with this solution. 

Iodole Collodion : — Iodole 10 ; 94-%" Alcohol 16 ; Ether 64 ; Pyroxylin 4 ; 
Castor-oil 6. 

— Internally, Iodole has also been given similarly to Iodoform, in 2-grain 

doses, without accessory effects. 



La mine Sulphate. — From Lamium album, (Dead Nettle; Blind Nettle), 
the flowers of which have long been in popular use in Central Europe as a 
Hemostatic, Dujardin-Beaumetz has extracted an Alkaloid, — Lamine, — in 
the form of a Sulphate, which, according to him, has proved to be possessed of 
powerful Hemostatic virtues in subcutaneous application. 



SVIagnesium Salicylate, cryst. — Colorless needles; easily soluble in 
Water and in Alcohol. 

Used in Typhoid fever and Typhus, instead of Bismuth Salicylate ; 

preferred to the latter on account of its acting less styptically. — 3-6 grammes 
per day are said to be borne without disagreeable accessory results. 



Manganese Silicate (Bi-silicate). — Yellowish, amorphous powder ; 
turning brown on exposure. — Soluble in dilute Acids. 
(Used in the composition of Enamels. ) 



Mercury Citrate. — Heavy white, amorphous powder ; wholly insoluble 
in Water and in Alcohol, even under the influence of heat. 



IVfercUry Gynocardate. — Yellowish-white mass, of the consistency 
of a strongly inspissated extract. Solubilities like Zinc Gynocardate (which see 
in present Bulletin). 

Used principally in Syphilis. 



IVlerciiry Salicylate is gaining renewed favor with some of the most 
eminent Dermato-syphilidological Cliniques of Germany, and bids fair to com- 
mand increased attention from the Medical Profession generally. (A highly 
favorable report on it has recently been published by Aranjo). 



IVIuira puama, Fluid Extract. — Said to be the jnost powerful known 
Aphrodisiac, reported as far exceeding Damiana in its action ! 



MERCK'S BULLETIN. 19 

Neriin, and Oleandrin. — Two Glucosides found by Schmiedeberg 
in the common Oleander {Nerium 0. Linne). — According to their discoverer, 
Oleandrin possesses a Digitalin-action, and Neriin one similar to Digita- 
lein. — Least of these active principles is found in the flower ; most in the wood 
and bark. 

A dose of 5-6 grammes of an Extract from the wo6d and bark are stated 
to be lethal in man. Death takes place through paralysis of the respiration and 
heart-action, some hours after the administration. 

Of Oleandrin, 2 5 milligrammes speedily cause systolic heart-arrest in frogs. 



OphlOXyline, —(Alkaloid?), — from Ophioxylon serpentinum (Apocynecz), a 

toxic plant native to India. — Prof. Bettink, who discovered and isolated this 

substance, ascribes to it the formula C 16 H 13 6 (or: C 48 H 39 18 ). It forms 

# 
orange crystals, easily soluble in Chloroform and in Benzene ; less so in Alcohol, 

and but very little in Water. Melting-point, about 71. 8° C. — It shows many 

resemblances to Juglone ; its taste is of fiery pungency. — (Prof, B. is continuing 

his researches on it. ) 



Ormosine, cryst.— A new Alkaloid from the seed of Ormosia dasy- 

carpa (coccineaP). — Small white crystals, insoluble in Water, easily soluble in 

« 
Alcohol and in Chloroform. Forms crystallizable Salts with various Acids. — 

Melting-point, 8o° C. 

Harnack credits it with an Opium-like Narcotic action. This experience 

is, however, contradicted by Robert. 



Papayotin^ pure. — "Vegetable Pepsin", from the juice of the 
Melon-tree (Carica papaya). — Used especially as a Safe and Efficient Mem- 
brane-Solvent in Croup and Diphtheria. 

In quite a weakly-alkaline aqueous solution, the peptonizing force of Papayo- 
tin is generally considered to be best brought to action. It thus dissolves 200 
times its weight of freshly de-serinated Blood-fibrin. 

For topical application in Membranous Croup and Diphtheria, a 5-% solu- 
tion (of Merck's Papayotin!) in slightly alkalized Water has been commonly 
used. This must be applied with a brush to the pseudo-membranes at intervals 
of 20 or 30 minutes, before asphyxia becomes imminent I — Prof. Dr. A. Jacobi has, 
however, with eminent success, in the complaints and manner mentioned, used 
the following formula : — Papayotin 1 ; Water 1 ; Glycerin 4. 



20 MERCK'S BULLETIN. 

In the Infiltrated form of Diphtheria, its action is less marked; while in the 
Membranous form of this and kindred diseases, the effect is undeniably bene- 
ficial. — -Rossbach of Jena and Finkler of Bonn found that the removal of the 
membranes as above described would reduce temperatures of 104 ° F, and above, 
to normal. — Dr. W. Keating Baudot, Ass't Professor at the Missouri Medical 
College, in an elaborate communication to the St. Louis Medical Review, on 
\ ' Papayotin in Diphtheria, " says : 

"One of the favorable results of Papayotin is due to the ab settee of Eschar otic 
effects .... Papayotin is a dlssoivent for all dead tissues. When taken into the mouth, 
the epithelium of the mucous membrane does not undergo the slightest change ; whereas, 
on the other hand, if there be present a false membrane, whatsoever its character, 
croupous or diphtheritic, it is immediately attacked and dissolved. ' ' 

Dr. Baudot further says that he prefers ' ' a concentrated Paste, " — -freshly pre- 
pared from powdere^J Papayotin with very little Water and "a drop of Lactic 
Acid ", — to the $-% solution in (alkalized ?) Water. — He also prefers the applica- 
tion by brush to the spray, except when, in Nasal Diphtheria, the parts are inac- 
cessible. 

— N.B. — The formulas above given apply to Pure Papayotin only, and 

not to a Lactose trituration of it, which sometimes is sold by names like 
'f Papain," etc. 



Potassium Cinnamate, from Pure Cinnamic Acid. — Slightly 
reddish, fine powder, of strongly aromatic odor. Very freely soluble in Water 
and in Diluted Alcohol. — Therapeutic application not yet determined. 



iResorcin Dry- Spray Powder (impalpable), chemically 

pure. — (Resorcinol), \_Meia-di-oxy-benzene~] . 

This form of Resorcin was but recently introduced by me, to serve espe- 
cially for Dry Inhalations in Diphtheritic and other affections of the Air- 
passages, where an Eschar otic application in fine subdivision is desirable. 

— Resorcin Merck, chem. pure, in its crystallized form, consists of deli- 
cate, brilliantly white needles — resembling snow in appearance, of very 
faint odor and sweetish-acrid taste. It is easily soluble in Water, Alcohol, and 
Ether. 

Its Internal uses are similar to those of Phenol (Carbolic Acid); it is, how- 
ever, free from the highly toxic character of Phenol. It is especially given as an 
Anti-fermentative in Gastric catarrhs, both acute and chronic. — Dose 0.2-0.5 



MERCK'S BULLETIN. 21 

gramme, in draughts or wafer-powders, several times per day. Maximal single 
dose : 3 grammes; maximal daily: 10. 

Externally, it is used as a Topical Escharotic in Diphtheria. Also, for 
Liniments (1:6) in Skin-diseases; for Urethral Injections (1 or 2 : 100) ; for Eye- 
waters ; for Wound-treatment, either in solution, or dry in wadding or gauze. 



Saccharin (Sulphinide of Benzoic Acid), — a Non-Fermentable 

Sweetening" Substance, of ?8o times the sweetening power of Cane-Sugar. — 
A white crystalline powder, soluble in 230 parts of Water of 2 5°C; easily 
soluble in Alcohol and Ether. It has a very faint odor of Bitter Almonds, 
which becomes more perceptible by heating. 

This preparation is in no wise related to the class of Sugars (Carb- 
hydrates), either chemically or physiologically. It is not only unfermentable, 
but possesses even an anti-zymotic action, — retarding, f. i., the ammoniacal 
fermentation in urine for some considerable time. It is indigestible, inert, and 
non-toxical, when taken into the stomach ; passing out with the urine un- 
changed. — At the same time, it is the sweetest substance known; 1 part in 
70,000 of water showing a perceptible sweet taste, equal to 1 Cane-Sugar in 
250 water; and a solution of 1 in 10,000 is intensely sweet. — Its chemical 
reaction is that of a weak acid, and hence it is capable of forming Salts with 
Alkaloids. 

These properties assign it a threefold place in Dietetics, Pharmacy, and 
Therapeutics :— 

Firstly, an admixture of it to the Food of Diabetic and Obese Patients 
enables them to enjoy the pleasure of tasting sweet nutriment, which ordinarily 
must be denied them on account of the harmful effect of Sugar in their 
ailments. 

Secondly, it appears to be a harmless and effective Sweetening Agent for 
Bitter Medicines, especially for the Alkaloids. 

Chemical combinations (True Salts), of it with several medicinal Alkaloids 

are therefore made, as follows : 

Quinine Saccharinate, \ {Not to be con- 

Morphine Saccharinate, V founded with 

Strychnine Saccharinate. ) Saccharates! ! !) 

— Also, the corresponding Bi-Saccharinates, which are especially well 
adapted for internal medicinal use. 

Thirdly, it is given, in combination with other remedial agents, or in pure 



22 MERCK'S BULLETIN. 

solution, as an Anti- Fermentative Medicine in various Gastric, Intestinal and 
Cystic disorders. 

— Its solution in (95-96 %) Alcohol is effected without difficulty at the rate 
of 10 grammes to 1 litre. 

— Its solution in Water is greatly facilitated by the addition of Alkalis or 
Alkaline Carbonates. 

The following formulas are adapted hereunto: 

Saccharin Syrup, (by Pollatschek) : — Saccharin 10 grammes; Sodium Carbon- 
ate Crystals 11 do.; Dist. Water 1000 do. — (5 grammes of the Carbonate will, however, 
suffice, if the aid of heat be used in making the solution. ) — The above quantity of Syrup 
is equivalent, in sweetening power, to about 6 pounds of Sugar. 

Saccharin Tablets, (by Bernh. Fischer): — Saccharin 3 grammes ; Dry Sodium 
Carbonate 2 do.; Mannit 50 do.; — make ico tablets. 

Besides the above Medicinal uses, Saccharin appears to be 

employed as a Sugar Substitute in Confectionery and Liquors. One part of it 
to 1000 or 2000 of Glucose (Grape-sugar), is said to make an equivalent to Cane 
-sugar ; and a ratio of 1 part Saccharin to 8000 of liquid menstruum is con- 
sidered sufficient for making Sweet Liquors. 



SapOtOXin {see former Bulletin!). — Robert has published an interest- 
ing treatise on this Colloid, in which he describes it as an extremely intensive 
Heart-poison. 

Silver and Ammonium, Fluoride, cryst. — White needles; easily 
soluble in hot Water ; rather stable under the influence of Light. 
(Used in Chromo-P holography /) 



Simulo, Tincture. — First prepared by Christy, of London, from the 
seeds of Capparis {Coriacece), whose fruit bears the name of " Simulo." — A 
report by White, in the Lancet, describes it as an excellent Anti- 
Epileptic, Anti-Hysteric, and Nervine Tonic, which he gave in 7 
cases of Epilepsy, and in others of Hysteria and Nervousness, with very gratify- 
ing results, and without any disagreeable accessory effects even after long-continued 
use. — His doses ran from 4 to 8 grammes per day. 



Sodium CitricO-benzoate. — White, spumescent powder ; veryfreely 
soluble in Water, hardly so in Alcohol. — Uses like those of the Benzoates 
generally, in Bronchitis, Asthma, etc. 



MERCK'S BULLETIN. 



Sodium Hydroxide, {Caustic Soda), pure, in drops, is a new 
form of this substance, recently introduced by me. 



Sodium Siiico-fluoride. — Innocuous Surgical Antiseptic. — 

Non-toxic I — Inodorous, difficultly soluble in Water. — A saturated aqueous 
solution contains 0.61 %. 

Thomson considers the Fluorides generally as excellent Antiseptics for 
surgical and other purposes ; of that entire class, he particularly recommends 
the Silico-fluoride of Sodium as possessing, among that class, the most 
desirable character for Efficacy ; and, on account of its non-poisonousness, 
also for Safety ! 



Sodium Sulphite, Benzoafed (not a. true Sulphuroso-benzoate salt!), 
— according to E. Heckel. — Non-toxic and Eminently Powerful Sur- 
gical Antiseptic. — Especially recommended by Prof. .Heckel for Wound- 
treatment, — Easily soluble in Water. — Entirely harmless to the human system. — 
(Prone to spontaneous decomposition !) 

Heckel states its Disinfecting Power at 10 times that of Iodoform, and as 
being fully equal to that of the Mercury Salts, to which it is preferable on 
account of its non-poisonous character ! 

For Lotions or Compresses : — 4-5 grammes to 1 litre of Water. 



Sodium Vanadate (Bi-vanadate), cryst. — Orange-red, small crys- 
tals ; very readily soluble in Water. 



SOZO- lodole (according to Kehrmann : — Di-iodo-phenol-sulphonate of Po- 
tassium, — C 6 1 2 H 3 K. S 4 -f- 2 aq.). — A valuable Dermatological Anti- 
septic 1 (according to Lassar). 

Sozo-Iodole is a solid, soluble in about 14 parts of Water or of Glycerin at 
ordinary temperatures, — in a much smaller proportion of these menstrua, how- 
ever, at a somewhat elevated temperature. (At 8o y C, it decomposes ; therefore, 
it must never be heated with the menstruum ; but the latter, having been previ- 
ously raised to about 50 C, should be poured on the Sozo-iodole, which then 
will rapidly dissolve. ) 

In solid form, Sozo-iodole ads very promptly when exhibited as an Ointment, 
or as a demulcent and bibulous Skin-Powder (with Talcum venetum). 



24 MERCK'S BULLETIN. 

Solutions and mixtures of Sozo-iodole do not undergo decomposition by the 
action of light or of the atmosphere. 



Sparteine, pure, syrupy.— A Ikaloid from Sarothamnus scoparius 
(Broom). — A Narcotic ! — Strongly alkaline, dense, oily liquid ; very easily 
susceptible to changes. — Odor similar to Aniline ; taste intensely bitter. — Little 
soluble in Water; easily so in Alcohol, Ether, and Chloroform. — Boils at about 
3 io°C 

Used in Heart affections. {See under "Sparteine Hydriodate," below!) 



Sparteine HydrSodate, cryst. — Heart Remedy. — New Spar- 
teine Salt! — Slender white needles; readily soluble in 5 parts Water, less so in 
Alcohol, Very easily soluble, also, in Chloroform to which a trace of Alcohol 
has been added. 

Uses, like those of Sparteine Sulphate and Hydrochlorate. 

— The action of Sparteine and its Salts generally is exercised 
through the Nerve-centres, sti?nulating frequency of Pulse and Respiration. — In 
Heart affections with disturbed compensation, with irregular, interrupted, 
arhythmic pulse, the Sparteine Salts are (by Germain-See and others) recom- 
mended as Succedanea for Digitalin and Convallamarin ; but the aptitude of 
the older Sparteine salts to fully replace Digitalis has not yet been established, 
although the report of their favorable action in the direction named is well 
sustained. 

Doses stated at 0.02-0.05-0.07 gramme!! — Pills or solution. — Greater 
doses (0.15-0.2 gramme) have produced serious symptoms of somnolence ; still 
greater ones bear decided fatal possibilities ! 

— Two approved formulas for Sparteine Salts read as follows : 

I. — Sparteine Sulphate, 0.5 gramme; Licorice-root and Licorice Powder, 2 grammes 
each ; —make 30 pills ; — 1-2 pills 2-4 times p. day. 

II. — Sparteine Sulphate, 0.2 gramme; White Sugar, 3 grammes; — make 10 wafer- 
powders ; — 1 powder 3 times p. day. 



Epsgetiine. — The highly toxifr active principle of Spigelia marilandica 
(lonicera), Solanacece (Strychnece), [Maryland Pink]-. — Anthelmintic. 
(Specially : Ascarides !) 



MERCK'S BULLETIN. 25 

Pure Spigeline is a very intensive poison, somewhat similar to Nicotine and 
to Coniine (Cicutine). Its therapeutic properties have not yet been ex- 
haustively ascertained. 

A Fluid Extract, however, from the herb and rhizome of the plant named 
has since some time been used for the above-stated purpose; — 4-8 grammes 
haying been given to adults, and 0.5-1 gramme to infants of 3-4 yrs., morning 
and evening, for several days, — being followed by a purgative. — The dose for 
the active principle Spigeline, on the other hand, is not yet definitely established. 



Strontium Fluoride. — Granular-crystalline, white powder; difficultly 
soluble in water, easily so in Hydrofluoric and in Muriatic Acid. 

Used — as all Fluorine combinations are since some time — in Laryngeal 
Phthisis, by Inhalation. 



Sulphonal [(C H 3 ) 2 . C. (C 2 H 5 . S 2 ) 2 ]. — (Di-ethyl-sulphon-di-methyl- 
methane.) — A new Hypnotic; Non-narcotic, — as described by Prof. Karst 
in the Berliner Klinische Wochenschrift. — Heavy, colorless, prismatic crystals; 
melting-point, about 130-13 1° C. Soluble in about 120 parts Water at 
ordinary temperature ; more readily in Alcohol and in Alcoholized Ether. 

Sulphonal is reported to act hypnotically merely by intensifying or. exciting 
the natural somnolence or soporific inclination, without any narcotic action being 
perceptible. It is especially eligible in many of those forms of Insomnia that 
proceed from Nervous excitement, etc. 

Average adult dose : 2 grammes, in powder. 

Accessory effects on the Heart-action have, so far, not been observed. 



Terpin Hydrate, (Mono-hydrate oi Terpin; or, Ter-hydrate of optically 
inactive Terpenes [Terpilenes]). — A Succedaneum for Oil of Turpentine, 
— of similar therapeutic effect, but more easily taken and borne. — Colorless, ino- 
dorous, rhombic crystals; easily soluble in hot Water, in Alcohol, Chloroform 
and Ether; of neutral reaction. 

Terpin Hydrate has for several years past proved a remedial agent of un- 
questionable value in diseases of the Respiratory organs, the Kidneys, and the. 
Nervous system.^ Lepine and others recommend it at as an Expectorant in- 
chronic and in sub-acute Bronchitis, and in the Bronchial catarrhs of Phthisical 



26 MERCK'S BULLETIN. 



and Emphysematical patients; likewise as a Diuretic in Chronic Nephritis. He 
prefers it, in these uses, to Oil of Turpentine (optically active Terpenes). — (Its' 
administration in Diphtheria has, so far, proved of little avail.) - 

Terpin Hydrate covers all the classes of cases in which Oil of Turpentine 
has been sucessfully applied ; while it has the advantages over the latter, of pos- 
sessing but a very weak aromatic taste, which causes no antipathy, and of pro- 
ducing no gastric troubles even in long-continued use. Among the clinical 
and practical authorities who have indorsed it in these particulars are Dujardin- 
Beaumetz, Tanret, See, Thieu, Decroizilles, and many others. 

Single dose: 0.2-0.4 gramme; maximal daily dose: 1-3 grammes;— pills, 
capsules, or hydro-alcoholic solution. (Some authorities, however, have given as 
high as 0.6-2.0 grammes at a time.) —The larger doses are said to suppress the 
excessive secretion in Bronchorrhcea, — thus acting in an opposite direction to the 
small ones. — For promoting Diuresis in Kidney affections, the larger doses are 
surely indicated. 

— tVigier's favorite formula is: — Terpin Hydr. 5 grammes; 9$-% Alcohol 20 do.; 
Glycerin 40 do. ; (add Sugar, or not); — teaspoonful at a time. 

— Rabow prescribes the following : — Terpin Hydrate 3 grammes ; Sugar and 
Gum-arabic Mucilage, equal parts, sufficient; — make 30 pills ; — 1-4 pills 3 t. p. d. ; 

Or: — Terp. Hydr. 10 grammes; Alcohol 150 do.; Dist. Water 100 do.; — table- 
spoonful 3 t. p. d. 



Zinc Gynocardate. — Yellow, granular Powder; insoluble in Water 
and in dilute Acids. Soluble in Ether, Chloroform, Alcohol. 
Exhibited in Ointment-form, in Eczema, Scabies, etc* 



The BULLETIN presents, besides the description of new or newly characterized 
Medicinal Substances, also some whose names and general characters are already currently 
known to every one in the Medical Profession and Drug Trade. I have been induced to 
receive these latter ones in the pages of the BULLETIN, in order to meet demands from 
many of my readers, who appear to desire somewhat more precise information on such 
semi-familiar substances than what they have been able to gather from the literature 
accessible to them so far. 

There are still a few other substances, which 1 have here mentioned without entering 
particularly on their therapeutic properties, as these properties are, in their details, at 
present still the object of Clinical Experiment. As soon as definite reports concerning 
them are obtained, 1 shall revert to them in future Numbers. 

E. MERCK. 



MERC 



A Periodical Record 01 New, 



Moved 




LLETIN 



ctions, or Applications 



Interest. 



ffo. 4 of Vol. 1. DARMSTADT-LONDON-NEW YORK. Aug., 1888. 

Publication-office in New York City: 73 William St.— P. O. Box No. 173. 



Subscription : — $0.50 per year. — Publication .•—Bi-monthly. — (Extra numbers as occasion may require - .) 

CONTENTS. Page. 
r. Acid, Camphoric,— Anti-catarrhal ; Dermatic ; Anti-diaphoretic , 28 

2. Acid, Oxalic, chem. pure, for Analyses. — A new grade of purity! .28 

3. Acid, Phospho-antimonic, — ace; to Otto.— A Reagent for Alkaloids . 29 

4. Acid, Santoninic. — The active principle of Santonica ( Artemisia maritima) . 29 

5; Ammonium Carbaminate, chem. pure. — The so-called "Anhydride " of* Ammonium Carbonate. ....2^ 

6. Ammonium and Potassium, Fluoride. — Very easily soluble in Water.... 29 

7. Apo-morphine Sulphate, cryst. — Soluble in Water . 29 

8; Barium, Sulphurated,— ace. to Winkler. — For generating Arsenium-free Hydrogen Sulphide. . . .2c) 

9. Bismuth Per-manganate, basic. T-Soluble in dilute acids ; ;... 30 

10. Brom-phenyl-acet- amide, Mono-. — (Additional to Bulletin Noi 3.) 30 

ii„ Caffeine Boro-Citrate. — True double Salt; easily soluble in Water, etc * 3d 

12,, Calcium^ Sulphur ated> — ace. to Fresenius ; and,— ace, to OTTO.^-For generating Hydrogen 

Sulphide. .■...* ■.. 4 , . ,. im 30 

13. Egg Preparations, soluble in water; — Dried Albumen ; Dried Albumin ; Dried Yelk ; — in various 

forms, for various dietetic and technical uses a ; *; ..*.... 30 

74. Gold, metallic precipitated} pure '.—Amorphous Powder ; and, Metallic Scales 31 

15; Helleborein newly applied as a Local Anesthetic for Ophthalmology, etc* — Anesthesia more enduring 

than with Cocaine. 4 ... 4 ...... 4 . . 4i i4 . . 31 

i6i Hyoscy amine (and Salts): (1) True Hyoscyamine, from Hyoscyamus ; (2) Derived Hyoscyamine* 

from Atropine 31 

17 . Hyoscyamime Hydro-iodate, pure, Cryst. — The crystalline form is new> . . . , 32 

18. Iodine Tri-chloride,— (additional to Bulletin No* 3) ; — official test oi its Antiseptic force.. 32 

19. Iodoform, bituminized (deodorized).— No Iodoform odor whatever is emitted by this compound 33 

20. Iron Santoninate* — Soluble in Water ; . , . . 4 4 . 4 33 

21* Mercury Albuminate, dry 4 — ace. to Schneider.— A Wound-dressing that eVolves Corrosive Sub- 
limate gradually, as needed,. ......... 4 ■. 4 33 

22; MercUry Cyanide in 1400 cases of Diphtheria • — reducing mortality from 92% to 5% ! ! 34 

23. Mercury Di-phenate, a wholesome medicine ;— confounded with Di-phenyl-mercury, a deadly 

poison l / 34 

24^ Mercury Sulphite 3 6 

25. Methyl-tri-hydro-oxy-quinoline-carbonate of Sodium, (" Thermifugin").— A new Antipyretic. .36 

26. Narceine Hydrochlorate Merck, chem. pure. — Superior to Morphine for Psychiatry. — (Cause of 

various melting-points!) '. 36 

27. Ouabain, — A new Heart-poison intravenously; innocuous per os 38 

28. Physostigmine (Eserine), and its Salts. — Harmless nature of some physical changes to which they 

are subject ?8 

29. Phosphorus Tri-sulphide, (Thio-phosphorous Anhydride) ? 38 

30. Potassium Blsulphite, chem. pure .—Easily soluble in Water ,39 

31. Quinine Hydrochloro-Citrate (Citrico- Muriate).— A true double Salt 39 

32. Quinine Hydro-silico-fluorate.— Very easily soluble in Water ... . . . . , .- 3 9 

33. Quinine Phtalate , 3 p 

34. Quinine and Ammonium, Citrate, (Ammonio-Citrate of Quinine).— A true double Salt 39 

35. Sodium Bi-sulphate, pure, fused ; in drops.— A new form 39 

36. Sulphonal.— (Additional to Bulletin No. 3.) 39 

37. Try-methyl-carbinol ( Tertiary Butyl-alcohol) 4 o 

38. Vasicine.— Alkaloid from Adhatoda vasica Nees, (" Vasatha").— Expectorant ; Palliative.— Also 

Insecticide . n 

39. Vernonin.— Glucoside from vernonia nigritans S. & M.— A He art -poison,— one-fortieth the strength 

of Digitalin 40 



Entered at the Post-Office, New York, as Second-Class Mail Matter. 



28 MERCK'S BULLETIN. 



Acid, Camphoric,— C 8 H 14 . (CO. H)„— as an Anti-Catarrhal, 

as a Dermatic, and as an Anti-Diaphoretic. — A paper recently read by 
Dr. M. Reschert before the Berlin (Germany) Medical Society attributes to 
this acid, which hitherto had no therapeutic use, an eminently beneficial effect 
in both acute and chronic inflammatory affections of the Mucous Membranes of 
the entire Respiratory Tract. Likewise in various acute diseases of the Dermis. 

A topical application of a 3-6-% solution of Camphoric Acid effects a con- 
traction of the surface-tissue (dermis or mucous membrane) within as little as 
two minutes,— thus immediately causing a sensation of relief and palliation of 
pain, which phenomena are combined with an essential reduction of the in- 
flammatory symptoms. — Acute Coryza has repeatedly yielded to the nasal 
douche charged with a solution of 1 in 500, or to a cotton-wool tampon with 
a 2-% solution. 

Withal, this acid exhibits no caustic accessory effects ; on the contrary, it 
actively promotes granulation (in Laryngeal ulcerations, etc.); and solutions of 
but 0.-9 of one per cent, act aseptically. 

It may be exhibited subcutaneously; or topically in 1/2-1-2-% solution; 
or as an Inhalant in 1-2-% solution. 

The probabilities are, that this substance may prove beneficial also in other 
directions besides those named. (Tuberculous processes, however, are not 
influenced by it.) 

Dr. Furbringer, for instance, reports its prompt efficacy — in at least 50 per 
cent, of the cases treated — in slopping the Night- Sweats of Consumptives. — He 
uses, for this purpose, either 1 gramme [15 grains] three to four times through 
the day; or 2 grammes in the evening. — This is said by Dr. F. to be the only 
specific action possessed by Camphoric Acid; which he terms: "an agreeable, 
very slightly toxic, and very little irritant, Antiseptic." 

— Camphoric Acid is in thin, colorless, scale-like crystals; or in large, lim- 
pid, monoclinic crystals, - of acid taste; melting-point 178 C. [352.4 F.]; 
little soluble in Water, — easily so in Alcohol or Ether. —Fats and Oils dissolve 
up to 2 per cent, of it. 

Acid, Oxalic, chem. pure,— for Analyses. — C 2 H 2 4 + 2 aq.. 

— Large, colorless prisms; perfectly clearly soluble in Water; volatilizable without 
residue ; — free from Calcium, Iron, Sulphuric Acid. 

— (Oxalic Acid of the degree of purity tiere described was hitherto unknown 
outside of the Laboratory ; — E. Merck has recently introduced this grade as an 
article of commerce.) 



MERCK'S BULLETIN, 29 

Acid, PhosphO-antimonic, — according to Otto. — Yellowish, 
strongly acid liquid. — Much used as a Reagent for Alkaloids. 



Acid, Santoninic {not Santonic!), — C 15 H 20 O 4 . — Small, colorless, 
rhombic crystals ; difficultly soluble in Water or Ether, — easily so in Alcohol 
or Chloroform.— Does not turn dark on exposure to light. 

Santoninic Acid (or its Anhydride : Santonin) may be considered the active 
principle of Levant Wormseed (flower-buds of Artemisia maritima), — also 
called Santonica, or Cina, or Semen-contra. 

— Many of the Metallic Salts of Santoninic Acid are exhibited therapeuti- 
cally under the same indications that determine the use of Santonica or of its 
extract or tincture. — {See, for instance : Iron Santoninate, in present 
Bulletin.) 

Ammonium Carbaminate, chem. pure.— (N H 4 ) 2 .CO,.— So- 
called "Anhydrous Ammonium Carbonate." — Light, white powder; extremely 
volatile. — Formed by the union of Carbonic Acid gas and Ammonia gas under 
Absolute Alcohol. — On contact with Water, it is at once transformed into Am- 
monium Carbonate. 



Ammonium and Potassium, Fluoride,— N H 4 Fl. K Fl.-— 

Fine, colorless, transparent crystals, — mostly leaflets ; very easily soluble in 
Water. Decomposes gradually in the air, — giving-up Hydrogen Fluoride, 
which attacks glass containers. 



Apo-morphine Sulphate, cryst— (C„ H„ N 2 ) 2 . H 2 S0 4 .— 
Fine, white, crystalline leaflets ; turning of a silver-grey color in the course of 
time. — Soluble in Water.— -(The solution turns green on exposure to light.) 



Barium, Sulphurated, — according to Winkler.— For the gener- 
ation of Arsenium-free Hydrogen Sulphide in Kipp's Apparatus. 

— Winkler's Formula for preparing the above compound reads as follows : — 
Mix 100 parts of Barium Sulphate, (Heavy Spar), 25 of Powdered Anthracite, 
and 20 of Table Salt ; triturate finely ; put into a crucible while moist; heat 
to whiteness ; then cool rapidly. 



30 MERCK'S BULLETIN. 



Bismuth Per-manganate, basic. — Microcrystalline powder, of 
velvety-black color ; absolutely insoluble in Water or in Alcohol ; soluble in dilute 
acids, (producing a violet color). 



Brom-phenyl-acet-amide, Mono-.— This Bromo-substituted 
compound of Medicinal P 'h enyl-acefcamide— (first noticed in Bulletin No. 
3 !)— appears in small, white, lustrous needles, which melt at 165 C. [329 F], 



Caffeine Boro- Citrate. — True double Salt— A voluminous, white 
powder; easily soluble in Water, Alcohol, or Chloroform. 

— It combines the therapeutic properties of Caffeine with those of Boric 
Acid. 

Calcium, Sulphurated {not == Sulphide!).— There are two new 
compounds answering to this description;— -both being used f of the generation of 
Hydrogen Sulphide in Ripp's Apparatus, 

Their preparation is as follows : 

1, — According to Fresenius : — Mix 4 parts of Sulphurated Lime, (Calcic 
Liver of Sulphur), and 1 of Anhydrous Calcium Sulphate, and, with a sufficiency 
of Water, form a stiff paste therefrom. This is pressed into paper molds; when 
half-dry, cut into cubes; and then dried at a moderate heat. 

2, — According to Otto : — Mix 7 parts of Anhydrous Calcium Sulphate, 3 of 
Powdered Charcoal, and 1 of Rye Flour, with sufficient Water to form a thick 
paste. Shape this into cylinders; when dry, subject them to an intensive 
bright-red heat in a Hessian crucible. 



Egg Preparations,— All Soluble in Water ;— 

I. — Albumen (White of Egg), dried, in Scales.— A saturated aqueous 
solution of a well-made, pure grade of Dried Albumen is fit for rep1aci?ig 
Fresh Egg Albumen in all its uses, — dietetic or technical. 

II. — Albumin (the Proteid Compound of White of Egg, deprived of the 
Cellular Tissue) is made in various grades and for various specific purposes, 
— as follows : 

I, — Ordinary; 
2, — Inodorous; 

3, — In Scales,— free from all Fibrinous Matter, — for Laboratory use; 
4, — Impalpable Powder, — for Gilding, Stamping, Embossing, etc. 
III. — Yelk (Yolk) [ Vilellus ovi], dried, is likewise prepared in various 



MERCK'S BULLETIN. 31 



grades of fineness, and of different physical constitutions, — so as to be exactly 
adapted to the uses named below: ■ 

l, — Sifted, — for Bird-food; 

2, — Light, flocculent Powder, —for Human Food; 

3, — In Spongious Flakes, — for Human Food and for rearing Exotic 
Birds. 



Cold, metallic, precipitated, pure.— There are two different forms 
of Metallic Gold Precipitate obtainable from solutions of Gold-salts, — as 
follows : 

1,— Amorphous, — a soft, lustreless, brown powder, — by Solution of 
Ferrous Sulphate; 

2, — In fine Scales, — with metallic lustre, — by Oxalic Acid, 



Helleborein {not Helleborin!). — One of the two Glucosides from 
Black Hellebore. — Recently found to possess valuable properties as a Topical 
Anesthetic,— especially for Ophthalmology. 

Experiments on rabbits and dogs, with 3-4 drops of an aqueous solution 
containing one-half milligramme [yJir grain] per drop, applied to the eye, pro- 
duced an Anesthesia of much longer duration than that from Cocaine,— i. e., of 
half an hour. — Helleborein is, therefore, thought to be preferable to Cocaine in 
some instances. 

(The older uses of Helleborein have been chiefly those of a Succedaneum 
for Digitalin. Initial dose : 0.012 gramme [about 1/5 — more exactly: 0.18 — 
grain]. — Its Hypodermic use is facilitated by its ready solubility in Water.) 



HyOSCyamine, and Salts. — Of this group there are principally Two 
Kinds in the market, differing radically in their sources and manner of produc- 
tion, — viz. : 

1, — The True HyOSCyamine Merck, made directly and only from 
Hyoscyamus niger, (Henbane). —A Hyoscyamus preparation is to be called 
"True" when prepared exclusively from the Black Hyoscyainus plant ; — not 
otherwise. 

2, — The Derived (Converted or Commercial) HyOSCyamine, made in- 
directly by chemical transmutation out of the Atropine Alkaloid, — which 
in its turn has been obtained from Belladonna (Deadly Nightshade) or from 
Stramonium (Thornapple). 



32 MERCK'S BULLETIN. 

This, a Semi-artificial Species of ' ' Hyoscyamine, " was long ago discov- 
ered, and the process for its derivation out of the different Alkaloid Atropine 
demonstrated and published by Prof. Ladenburg, of Kiel University, (Ger- 
many). But it was reserved unto these latter days for a certain chemical factory 
in Germany to blazon this discovery, — since years the common property of the 
chemical world, — as a scientific feat of their own ; the value of which to Therapy 
would be a questionable one at best ; for hardly any chemically well-informed 
physician would be ready to admit, on the mere showing of chemical identity, 
that the True and the Derived Alkaloids (that is : Hyoscyamus- Hyoscyamine 
and Belladonna-Hyoscyamine) could also be safely assumed as being therapeu- 
tically or physiologically identical. — On the contrary, the latter point remains to be 
proven ; and physicians wishing to be sure of what they prescribe, will natu- 
rally order ' ' True Hyoscyamine " (that is : Hyoscyamine, direct from Hyoscy- 
amus). 

Hyoscyamine Hydro-iodate, pure, cryst,— C 17 H 23 N0 3 .HI.-^ 

Delicate white crystals; easily soluble in Water, Alcohol, or Chloroform. — 
This salt acts Mydriatically, and is more readily soluble than that of Atropine. — 
Melting-point, 154 C [309.2 F]. 

- — This Salt was hitherto not prepared in a crystalline for 7n* 



Iodine Tri-Chloride — {see Bulletin No. 3!) has recently been 
officially tested as to its Antiseptic Power by the Imperial Sanitary Bureau of 
the German Empire, at Berlin. (Dr. O. Riedel was the examining chemist.) 
The following result was ascertained : 

"An aqueous solution of 1 in 1000 destroys resistant bacillus-spores within a com- 
paratively short time; but only the aqueous solution does this. Alcoholic or oily 
solutions proved ineffective. 

"Iodine Tri-chloride far surpasses Carbolic Acid, and is next to Corrosive 
Sublimate, in Antiseptic Power. ' ' 



Iodoform, bituminized (deodorized). — This preparation, in- 
vented by Dr. Ehrmann, consists of a combination of Iodoform with Tar, in 
which the specific, disagreeable odor of the former constituent 15 entirely absorbed 
by that of the latter ; so that nothing but an agreeable, faint, Tar-like smell re- 
mains. 



MERCK'S BULLETIN. 33 



Bituminized Iodoform is in hard, transparent or translucent scales, of me- 
tallic lustre and brown color, and resembling small laminae of Mica in fineness. 
These are easily pulverizable. t The powder thus gained is applied to sores-, 
wounds, etc., by means of a soft brush, and is then covered with sterilized, 
aseptic, or antiseptic cotton-wadding. 

The inventor recommends the use of the Bituminized Iodoform particularly 
in Soft Ulcerations— -more especially in those inclining to Gangrenescence ; and 
in all those cases which forbid the application of Pure Iodoform on account 
of Eczema. 



Iron Santoninate {not Santonate !), — Fe (C 15 H 19 4 ) 2 . — Pale-red, 
amorphous, dusty powder ; soluble in Water or Ether, — -very easily so in Al- 
cohol or Chloroform. 

— {Therapeutic use — compare : Acid, Santoninic, in present Bulletin. ) 



Mercury Albuminate, dry ; Pharmaceutical Formula according to 
A. Schneider (in Pharmaz'eulische Cenlralhalle, 1888, pages 141 and 163) : — 

"Dissolve 1 part, by weight, of best Egg Albumin* in 8 of Water, by shaking.— 
Filter. 

"Add cautiously to the filtrate : Mercury Bichloride (Corrosive Sublimate), — stir- 
ring after the addition of each portion, — as long as the addition will cause a precipita- 
tion. (This will require in the neighborhood of 333 parts of the Sublimate to every 
1000 of the Albumin employed. ) Thereupon allow the precipitate 48 hours for settling. 

' ' Decant the supernatant liquor from the precipitate ; mix the latter — without first 
washing it — with enough Powdered Sugar of Milk to produce an almost dry powder. — 
Dry this over Sulphuric Acid ; then powder finely ; then triturate with sufficient addi- 
tional Milk-Sugar, to make the Sublimate employed represent four-tenths of one per 
cent, of the whole." 

— According to this, 1000 parts of Mercury Albuminate by Schneider's 
formula will contain 4 of the Bichloride, — -to about 12 of Albumin and 984 of 
Lactose . 

The Albuminate thus prepared gives up no Mercury Bichloride to Water 
with which it is agitated ; while it does so readily to solutions of Sodium Chloride, 
Ammonium Chloride, Potassium Iodide, Blood-serum, Meat-broth, etc., upon 
agitation. 



(,*) See page 30 of present Bulletin. — Editor, 



34 MERCK'S BULLETIN. 

Hence, it is evident that the special virtue of this preparation as a Wound- 
dressing consists in its furnishing a constant and gradually-working source of 
Mercury Bichloride, of which the quantity thus set-free bears an invariable rela- 
tion to that of the serous wound-secretion. This secretion naturally contains a cer- 
tain proportion of Sodium Chloride; and in exact ratio to this proportion of the 
Sodium-salt will be the proportion of Corrosive Sublimate dissolved out of the 
Mercury- Albuminate dressing by the traumatic fluids : that is, six molecules 
of Sodium Chloride will always be needed for setting-free one molecule of the 
Mercury-salt. 

Moreover, — the solution thus formed does not throw-down any Albumin ; 
thus keeping the surface-tissues unclogged by any deposit from the dressing. 



Mercury Cyanide in Diphtheria!— The Swedish physician Stell- 
den reports on 1400 cases of Diphtheria treated by him with Mercury Cyanide. 
There were, among that number, but 69 deaths, — not amounting to quite 5 per 
cent.; while, ordinarily, in the same district, the death-rate showed 92 per cent.! 

Stellden's Formula is : 

Mercury Cyanide, 0.02 grammes [ 0.3 grain], 
Tincture Aconite, 2.0 " [ 30.0 " ], 

Honey... 50.0 " [450.0 " ], 

— Mix. — Dose: — One Teaspoonful every 15, 30 or 60 minutes, according 
to patient's age. 

Besides this, a Gargle of 1 part Mercury Cyanide to 10,000 of Peppermint 
Water is to be used every 1 5 minutes. 

— These frequent doses and applications are supposed to create a medium 
in which the Diphtherial bacillus cannot live. 



Mercury Di-phenate (Di-phenylate ; Bi-carbolate) ; — and Di- 
phenyl - mercury.— Some articles in recent pharmaceutical journals, which 
treated specially of my preparations, — having confounded the two compounds 
above named, as if they were identical, — I feel called-upon to publicly rectify 
this misapprehension, into which the close resemblance of names may lead 
still others; and which is all the more dangerous because the second of the 
substances named is a deadly poison of an extremely insidious character. 



MERCK'S BULLETIN. 35 

Mercury Di-Phenate is a neutral salt of Mercury and Carbolic Acid, con- 
taining two equivalents of the acid to one of the metal ; — the two outside 
atoms of Hydrogen in a double molecule of Carbolic Acid, (Phenol); 

C 6 H 5 . O H I 
C. H 5 . O H J ' 

having been substituted by a. bivalent Mercury atom, thus: 

C 6 H 5 .0^ 

C,H 5 ,0^ H S- 

• 

This preparation, and the so-called " basic" Phenate, (Mercury Sub-car- 
bolate) :— Hg. C 6 H 5 O. O H, — are both in use as Anti-Syphilitic remedies ; 
the former (both the perfectly neutral "Mercury Di-phenate Merck," and a 
variation of it, known as ' 'Mercury Phenate according to Schadeck's Formula") 
being well established and very favorably reputed as such; — while the Sub-phenate 
of Mercury (known as ' ' Gamberini's Formula ") is of less repute, because of 
less constant composition. 

—On the other hand, — Di-phenyl-mercury is not a Salt of Phenol and 
Mercury at all, but a so-called Metallo-organic compound (or, more exactly: a 
Metzllo-aro malic compound). It arises likewise from a substitution of two 
atoms of Hydrogen by one of Mercury; this substitution, however, in the pres- 
ent case, does not take place in a double molecule of Phenol (Carbolic Acid), 
but in a double molecule of Benzene (Benzol): 

Q H 6 
C 6 He 



— thus forming Di-phenyl-mercury : 

Hg. 



C,H 6 



Q H 5 

It will be seen that this latter compound differs from Mercury Di-phenate, 
before described, by the lack of the two Oxygen-atoms which, in distinction from 
it, characterize the Diphenate. 

— Di-phenyl-mercury is no less insidiously toxic than its close relative, Di- 
methyl-mercury, which, in 1865, cost two British chemists who were preparing it, 
their lives! (P. Hepp, Prumers, and Balogh-Kalman, — experimenting on 
Di-elhyl-mercury, — have, moreover, demonstrated the probable inavailability, for 
therapeutic use, of all this group of Organo-derivatives of Mercury, owing to 
their excessively long continued latency in the system.) 



3 6 MERCK'S BULLETIN. 



— A test, distinctive between the Di-phenate of Mercury and Di-phenyl- 
mercury, is very easily made by heating a small portion of either compound in 
a, long, dry test-tube. The medicinal Salt will emit fumes of metallic Mercury., 
which condense in the upper, cooler part of the tube in small globules, visible 
through a magnifying-glass. — The toxic Organo-derivative sublimes unchanged, 
depositing minute needles of the same compound, in the upper part of the tube. 



Mercury Sulphite, — E[g S 3 .— (A Peroxide-salt.)— A heavy white 
powder, obtained by precipitation. — Insoluble in Water; — On exposure to 
light, it turns reddish, giving-off Sulphur Di-oxide, and gradually producing 
Red Oxide, (Mercury Per-oxide). Under the influence of heat, it quickly 
.splits into Metallic Mercury, Mercuric Sulphate and Sulphur Di-oxide. 



Methyl-tri-hydro-oxy-quinoline-carbonate of Sodium, 

(proposed empiric name: " Thermifllgin "). — Methyl-tri-hydro-oxy-quino- 
line-carbonic Acid — C„ H 13 3 N— was recently discovered by Nencki, of Basle. 
— Its Sodium-salt (the so-called ' ' Thermifugin "•) has been found, by Prof. 
Demme, of Berne, to be an interesting Antipyretic, which combines the 
three effects of reducing, temperature, of retarding the pulse, and of increasing the 
blood-pressure. 

The Acid above named forms beautiful crystals, which are but little soluble 
in Water or Alcohol, and melt at 265 ° C [509 F]. — Its Sodium-salt (the so- 
called "Thermifugin ") is faintly yellowish-white, dimly lustrous, and forms a 
dark-brown aqueous solution, — which change of color, however, does not in 
any wise affect the character or virtues of the compound. 

The doses of "Thermifugin" are stated at: 0.1-0.15 gramme \\\-i\ 
grains] forage 4-6; 0.2 gift, [3 gr.] at 7-10 ; 0.25 gm. [3 j gr.] at 11-15 years. 



Narceine Hydrochlorate Merck* eRem.- pure.— Most of the 
Narceines of commerce are of varying constitutions ; in all probability they 
contain foreign substances ; - this, at least seems the only tenable explanation 
of the widely differing statements in Chemical Literature as to the v elting -point 
of this Alkaloid. — According to Hesse, for instance, this point is at 14 5 C 
[293 F] ; a lot of British Narceine tested by me melted at 153 ° C [307.4 Fl. — 



MERCK'S BULLETIN. ' 37 

When such a commercial article is subjected to x moderate oxydation by Potas- 
sium Permanganate, — according to Claus and Meixner, — so-called "Pure 
Narceine " is obtained, melting at 162 C [323.6 F]. It will be seen, how- 
ever, from facts adduced below, that the Alkaloid thus obtained is not yet pure ; 
as it does not possess the true Melting-standard. 

While the therapeutic availability of Narceine in the Alkaloid form is 
impaired by its poor solubility (1 part in 250 of boiling Water) and by the diffi- 
culty of determining its condition 0/ purity, — its Hydrochloric Salt is 
notably free from these drawbacks ; and this appears, therefore, to be the 
most available form in which to exhibit Narceine as a medicine. 

Merck's Chemically Pure Narceine Hydrochlorate comes in 
the form ot short, stout, lustrous prisms, which are soluble in all proportions 
in boiling Water. Its solubility in cold Water vastly exceeds that of the free 
Alkaloid.( — Strong hot solutions, on cooling, deposit delicate needles, in ap- 
pearance resembling free Narceine ; but in truth consisting of a mixture of the 
free Alkaloid with the Hydrochlorate. ) 

The most practical Solvent for the Hydrochlorate is Water containing a small 
admixture of Alcohol. 

The Chemically Pure Narceine Hydrochlorate Merck is of absolute 
purity, corresponding exactly to the formula C 23 H 29 N 9 . H CI, which is that of 
the chemically neutral salt, (notwithstanding an acid reaction shown by it on 
color-tests ; a property common to many strictly neutral salts). 

The Actually Pure Narceine Alkaloid, —absolutely free from Chlor- 
ine ! — obtained by isolation from the above Salt, has an Appreciably Higher 
Melting-point than any mentioned above, — viz. : 170 C [338 F~|. — (This 
fact is, in itself, a conclusive proof of the superior purity of the Hydrochlorate 
from which the Alkaloid was isolated.) 

— According to the clinical tests quoted by Erlenmeyer and Reissner, the 
chief special value of Narceine is in its use as a Sedative and Hypnotic in 
Psychiatric diseases; on which field of practice it has, in most cases, yielded 
results superior to those of Morphine. 

Also for a Hypnotic and Sedative in general, it has proved exceedingly valu- 
able: according to Debout's reports, a dose as small as 0.03 gramme [J grain] 
suffices to induce a quiet sleep without oppressive dreams, and not followed by 
headache on awaking. 

According to Oetinger, Petrini, Sichting, and others, it is highly approved 
m Coughing-spells ; and m fschias&nd Neuralgias is preferable to Morphine! 



3S MERCK'S BULLETIN. 



Contrary results reported are probably due to the lack of purity in the Nar- 
ceine employed; Erlenmeyer, for instance, mentions having occasionally 
experimented with utterly inefficient preparations sold by that name. — Systematic 
investigations, based on the use of an Absolutely Pure Salt, ought, therefore, 
to prove a matter of high interest. 

The dose, according to Husemann, may run from 0.06 to 0.2 gramme 
[about 1 to 3 grains], or more. 



Ouabain — C 30 H 46 O,2. — A Glucoside found by Arnaud in the wood 
and root of the Ouabaio, a tree belonging to the family of Apocynece, from whose 
wood and root the Comalis of Eastern Africa prepare their arrow-poison by 
aqueous infusion. —Perfectly white, inodorous crystals, devoid of bitter taste, — 
soluble in Water, and containing 7 molecules of Water of crystallisation in 
addition to above formula. — Tannin precipitates the glucoside from its aqueous 
solution. 

A Heart-poison when brought directly into the circulation, — this glucoside 
is wholly innocuous by mouth; — thus taken, it is even reported to be a promoter 
of digestion ! 



Physostigmine (Eserine). — This Alkaloid (the active principle 
of the Calabar Bean=$eed of Physostigma venenosum), and some of its 
Salts, possess the property of deliquescing on contact with the atmosphere ; 
and also of turning of a reddish color on exposure to the light. 

Neither the deliquesence (producing conglutination or ' ' baking "), nor the 
change of color (based on the formation of Rubreserine), do in anywise affect the 
therapeutic efficacy or other desirable qualities of a pure, well-made Eserine pre- 
paration. 

— There may be Eserine preparations in commerce which are contaminated with 
foreign matter from the outset, and which are therefore also particularly liable 
to suffer a deteriorative decomposition by exposure or age ; this fact may have 
created an undue prejudice against the harmless l ' baking " or the equally harmless 
" reddening," to which the purest makes of Eserine are, from the chemical and 
physical nature of the Physostigma-Alkaloid, unavoidably subject. 



PhOSphp.rusTri-SUlphide, (Thio-phosphorous Anhydride),— rP s S,. — 

Greyish-yellow, crystalline lumps; totally insoluble in Carbon Bi-sulphide. — 
Water decomposes it into Hydrogen Sulphide and Phosphorous Acid. - Melts, 
without decomposition, at 290 C [554 F]. 



MERCK'S BULLETIN 



39 



Potassium Bi-sulphite, chem. pure* — KH. S0 3 4- aq. — Large, 
transparent, monoclinic crystals ; or small white needles. Easily soluble in 
Water. — Emits odor of Sulphur Di-oxide, (Sulphurous Anhydride). — Contains 
about 8 J per cent, of the Anhydrous Bi-sulphite; 



Quinine Hydrochloro-Oitrate (Citrico-Muriate). — A true doubU 
Salt.— Very small, lustrous crystals j soluble in a great excess of Water, — more 
easily in Alcohol. 

Quinine Hydro-silico-fluorate,— C 20 H 24 N 2 2 . H 2 Si Fl 6 .— White* 
microscopic crystals ; soluble with extreme facility in Water; difficultly soluble 
in Alcohol or Ether;— The aqueous solution gives a strong acid reaction, and 
fluoresces beautifully; 

Quinine Phtaiate,— C 20 H 24 N 2 2 . C 8 H 6 4 . (?) — A light Quinine 
preparation; in translucent scales; melting at 70° C [158 F] ; soluble with 
entire clearness in 2 parts, by weight, of 95-% Alcohol^ — which solution admits 
of cautious dilution with Water.— Cold Water alone takes up but little of the 
salt ; and the excess taken-up by hot Water falls out on cooling. The aqueous 
solution reacts acidulous!}'* 



Quinine and Ammonium, Citrate, (Ammonio-Citrate of Qui- 
nine). — A t? r ue double Salt. -^ Light, white powder; little soluble in Water, -^ 
easily so in Alcohol 

Sodium Bi- sulphate (Acid Sulphate; Hydro-sulphate),— NaH.S0 4 , 
—pure; fused, in drops. — White, very hard rotula; slowly, but cledrly i 
soluble in Water. — This salt decomposes Carbonates, and is therefore some- 
times used for the production of pure Carbonic Acid. 



SUl phonal — {compare Bulletin No. 3, page 25 !), — according to Schol- 
vien, when pure, has its melting-point not at about 130.5° C [266.9 F], as 
formerly assumed ; but at 125. 5 C [257.9 F]. 

Its solubilities are as follows :— In 500 parts, by weight, of Water at 15 C 
[59 F] ; in 133 of Ether, or 65 of Absolute Alcohol, or no of 50-% Alcohol, — 
all at above temperature ; in 15 of boiling Water : and in 2 parts of boiling 
Alcohol. 



40 



MERCK'S B UL L E TIN. 



Tri-methyl-carbinol— (C H 3 ) 3 . COH — {Tertiary Butyl-alcohol].— 
Perfectly clearly deliquescent rhombic plates ; melting-point, 25 C [77 F] ; 
boiling-point, about 85 ° C [185 F]. — On oxydation, decomposes into Acetone, 
Carbonic Acid, Acetic Acid, with traces of Iso-butyric Acid ; in contradistinc- 
tion to the Primary and Secondary Butyl-alcohols, which, on oxydation, fur- 
nish Butyric Acid, and the corresponding Ketone (C 4 H 8 O), respectively. 



Vasicine. — An Alkaloid found by Dr. Hooper in the leaves of 
Adhaloda vasica Nees, (called "Vasatha" in Sanscrit). — This plant, which be- 
longs to the natural order of Acanthacece, is a native of Punjaub, where it occurs 
very frequently; it is also found in Ceylon and the Malay islands, It grows as 
a dense, almost tree-like shrub; and its leaves are used in its native region as 
an Expectorant and Palliative in Asthma, Bronchitis^ and other affections 
of the respiratory tract. — Besides this, they are used with notable effect as an 
Insecticide. 

Numerous experiments with a solution of the Alcoholic Extract from 
Vasatha-leaves have shown this to be an intensively lethal poison to all the lower 
orders of animals; while it produced no appreciable effect in healthy animals 
of the higher orders. 

Vernonin — C 10 H 24 7 . — According to Heckel and Schlagdenhauffen, — 
a Glucoside from the root of Vernonia nigritans S. & M. , a plant indigenous 
to the Eastern coast of South Africa, and by the natives there called "Batjent- 
jos ". — The glucoside forms a white and rather hygroscopic powder. 

The physiological action of Vernonin is that of a Heart-poison, — anal- 
ogous to that of Digitalis, Convallaria, Strophanthus, and other vegetable 
Heart-poisons. 

Vernonia nigritans seems to be the first Composite in which a Digitalis-like 
principle was found; — only, the action of Vernonin is about 40 times weaker 
than that of an equal dose of Digitalin. 

(The examination of the Batjentjos-root for Emetine proved devoid of 

results. ) 

E. MERCK. 



SUBSCRIPTION ORDER. 



E. MERCK, 

73 William Street, New York. 

(P, 0. Box 0173.) 

Incfosed find FIFTY CENTS in 7£. S. Stamps, 
in payment of ONE YEAR'S SUBSCRIPTION for 

MERCK'S BULLETIN 



J2ame or ^firm (distinct!): 



Ho. 



STREET. 
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The BULLETiy presents, besides the description of new or newly character- 
ized Medicinal Substances, also some whose names and general characters are 
already currently known to every one in the Medical Profession and Drug Trade. 
I have been induced to receive these latter ones in the pages of the EULIjETIN, 
in order to meet demands from many of my readers, who appear to desire some- 
what more precise information on such semi-familiar substances than what they 
have been able to gather from the literature accessible to them so far. 

There are still a few other substances, which I have here mentioned witJiout 
entering particularly on their therapeutic properties, as these properties are, in 
their details, at present still the object of Clinical Experiment. As soon as 
definite reports concerning them are obtained, I shall revert to them in future 
Numbers. 

E. MERCK. 



MERC 



o 



p 



N 



'°l. 



LLETIN 



A Periodical Record of$$w Discoveries, In&c^uctions, or Applications 

of If £«p£gl fiftjyiiqpfc 

Moved bV Professional ~ not Business/- Interest. 



No. 5 of Yol. 1. 



DARMS" 



T 



l AM 



IEW YORK. 



Publication-office in New York City: 73 William St.— P. O. Box No. O 173. 



Oct., 1888. 



Subscription .-—One Dollar per year.— Publication;— Bi-monthly.— {Subscriptions begin at any time. 



CONTENTS. Page. 

Acetal (Di-ethyl-acetal), as a Narcotic . 2 

Acid, Cresylic, (Cresol).— A ntiseptic, superior to Carbolic Acid 42 

" Lactic— Efficient A nti-Diarrketic in Phthisis 

" Tri-chlor-acetic— Escharotic for Warts, etc 

Adonis aestivalis.— Heart-remedy where Digitalis fails 

Alstonine (Chlorogenine).— Like to Quinine and Strychnine .—[Also : a Hop-substitute.]., 

7. Ammonium Iodide.— Non-irritant in the Vasomotor system ; preferable to Potassium Iodide 43 

8. Andromedo-toxin\— i^z>^zV«-poison.— Extremely powerful Emetic , 43 

9. Antipyrine as a re-enforcing A djunct to Cocaine in Dental Anesthetization 43 

10. Apiol, solid, (Parsley-Camphor), as a Cerebral Stimulant and as a Quinine-substitute 44 

11. Betol.— Non-toxic Internal Disinfectant, acting only in the Intestines , 44 

12. Bismuth Oxy-iodide (Sub-iodide).—^ ntiseptic: on Wounds, in Gonorrhea, and in Internal use. ... 44 

*3- peptonated.— In Dyspepsia and Gastralgia 44 

14. Boldoin, the Boldo-GLUcosiDE {not the Alkaloid " Boldine " !).— Hypnotic ; Local A nesthetic. .... .45 

15 & 16. Caffeine Citrico-benzoate ; and Citrate ;— true Salts.— The Citrate a Cerebral Anodyne.^ 

Calcium Phosphate, tri-basic, gelatinous.— Material for Lacto-Phosphate preparations 45 

Camphor, carbolized, (Phenol-Camphor).— Cutaneous A nodyne ; Local Anesthetic 45 

Creolin — (Additional to Bulletin No. 3.) — Non-irritant and Non-toxic A nti-Parasitic ■ A nti- 
septic ; Hemostatic , , , 

Cytisine.— Augments Blood-pressure, without acting on the Heart !— In Hemicrania 46 

Ditaine.— Intensive Vasomotor-poison ; similar to Curare 4 6 

Eth-oxy-Caffeine.— Local Anesthetic, surpassing Cocaine ; also internally, in Hemicrania 47 

Ethylene Chloride (Bi-chloride).— A nesthetic, preferable to Chloroform 47 

Geranium maculatum, (Cranesbill) ;— [Active principle : Geranine.']— Internal Astringent, etc. . . 47 

HvosciNE-salts ;— best Sedatives in Psychiatry ;— in Ophthalmology, preferred to Atropine. 

Indole.— [The most delicate reagent for Lignified Cells in Cellulose-tests.] 

Iron Albuminate, dry.— Very efficient in A nemia and Beri-beri I 4 8 

Is-apiol. — Heart-stimulant ; Intoxicant 4 8 

Is-atropyl-Cocaine (Secondary Alkaloid from Coca).— Heart-poison „ 

Jaborandi (Pilocarpus) : Fluid Extract.— Very successful in Erysipelas 

Jerubebine,— the Alkaloid of a Brazilian plant— reported as a Nervous Tsnic 

Lead Caustic, (Plumbic Caustic).— Escharotic Pencils for Condylomata 

Lipanin.— An excellent, easily borne Succedaneum/br Cod-liver Oil 49 

Male Fern, (Aspidium) : Extract.— Non-active when from old material !— High authority directs 
Increase of usual dose , 

Mercuro-Succin-imide.— Extremely valuable, new Hypodermic in Syphilis 

36 & 37. Mercury Cyanide ; and Oxy-cyanide. - (Partly additional to Bulletin No. 4.)— A £ 

cedaneum for Corrosive Sublimate ! 

Muira puama— Its probable botanical derivation 

Naphthol, Alpha-.— Very efficient A ntiseptic and A nti-Zymotic 

Ouabain and Strophanthin,— their close relations.— (Additional to Bulletin No. 4.) 52 

Oxy-Propylene-di-iso-Amyl-amine.— Powerful Heart-tonic and Stimulant 53 

Parthenicine.— A palliative in Neuralgias ; and a Fever-cure \\ „ 

Physostigmine (Eserine) in Veterinary Practice.- -V ery efficient in Simple Horse-Colic \.. ]..... 53 
Quinidine (Conchinine) Tannate, insipid/— In Dyspepsia, Diarrhea, Nephritis, etc 54 

45- Quinine Albuminate.— Well borne by very sensitive patients ! 

Oleate.— For Dermatic treatment, (acting on internal organs through the skin) 54 

Schinus molle, yielding Piperine Alkaloid ;-preferable to Cubebs and Kava-kava ,..;,. .54 

STROPHANTHus.-(Additional to Bulletin Nos. i and 2.)— Only one species known ^Differences in 

yield of Strophanthin explained . 

Tri-brom-phenol.— Energetic Disinfectant in Purulent and Gangrenous processes' '. ....... ... '. '. . 55 

Vlkxine.— Heart-poison, etc., somewhat similar to Curare ;— in moderate dose, a useful Diuretic. .56 



17 



19 



38. 
39- 
40. 
41. 
42. 

43- 
44. 



47 



47 



Entered at the Posi-Office, New York, as Second-Class Mail Matter. 



42 MERCK'S BULLETIN. 

Acetal {Di-ethyl-acetal)—C, H 14 0„ viz.: CH,CH (O. C 2 H 5 ) 2 -is ob- 
tained as a by-product of Alcohol or Aldehyd manufacture. It is a limpid liquid, 
of specific gravity 0.821 at 22 ° C [71.6 F]; boiling-point 104 C [219. 2 F]. It 
is soluble in 18 parts of Water at 25 C [yj F]. 

According to von Mering, it is given internally as a Narcotic, in doses of 
5 to 10 grammes [1 \ to i\ drams]. 



Acid, CresyliC, (Cresol), as an Antiseptic, has recently been brought 
into notice, by Dujardin-Beaumetz. He finds its A nti-Zymotic action superior 
to that o/"Phenic (Carbolic) Acid ; — one part of a 2-per-cent. solution added to 
ten parts of a fermenting liquid, according to that authority, stops all further 
fermentation. 

Acid, Lactic, has recently come into prominence as an Anti-Diar- 
rhetic in Phthisis, where all other remedies have failed. — The dosing com- 
mences with 2 grammes [30 grains] dissolved in 1 20 grammes [4 fluidounces] 
of Water ;— rising to 6 or 8 grammes [1 \ to 2 drams] per day. 

The Phthisical Diarrhea is said to yield to three or four days of this treat- 
ment. 

Acid, Tri-chlor-acetiC,— C Cl 3 . C0 2 H. - Deliquescent rhombohe- 
dral crystals; melting-point 52. 3 C [126. 14 F] ; boiling-point 195 C [383 F]; 
specific gravity at 46° C [114.8 F] : 1.617. 

— This Acid is the best and quickest Escharotic for Warts, hard Corns, 
and indurated Bunions. 

AdOtliS aestivalis I the flowering herb — in the dose of 4 to 30 grammes 
[1 dram to 1 ounce], prepared into an Infusion, per day - is described by Bir- 
gotti as an excellent Heart-remedy in Stenose or Mitral Insufficiency ; he 
declares it to be useful also in cases where Digitalis fails or is hurtful. 



Alstonine (Chlorogenine) — the Alkaloid of Alstonia constricta 

[not the "Dita-bark" tree, which is Alstonia scholaris !], an Australasian 

Apocynea -^- forms white, lustrous, silk-like crystals, easily soluble in Ether, 

Chloroform or Alcohol. It is nearly insoluble in cold Water ; somewhat soluble 

in hot Water, to which it imparts an intensely bitter taste. 

Alstonine is an Anti-Periodic, Antiseptic, and Stimulant,— thus 

uniting the qualities of Quinine and Strychnine. It is eniDloyed in Typhoid 

and in Lacteal Fevers, 

s 



MERCK'S BULLETIN. 43 

— (The bark of Alstonia constricta is also sometimes used by Ale brewers 
as a substitute for Hops ; it being free from the effect of inducing headaches or 
any of the other ailings consequent on the imbibition of the Hop-bitter. ) 



Ammonium iodide is proposed by d'Oliveri as a Succedaneum 
for Potassium Iodide, in view of the untoward accessory effects produced 
in the Vasomotor centre by continued administration of Potassium-salts, — a 
drawback not found in the Ammonium Iodide. 

Dose for Adults: 1— 1 ^ grammes [15-23 grains], in Iced Water, three times 
a day, after meals; — for Children: 0.25-0.5 gramme [4-8 grains]. 

Andromsdo-toxin — C ;4 H 51 O 10 — is the active principle of the species 
of Rosebay known as Rhododendron ponticum, Ericaceoe, (contained, according 
to Plugge, also in other Ericaceas). It forms needle-shaped crystals, easily 
soluble in cold or hot Water. It melts at 228-229 C [about 443 F], and turns 
the plane of polarized light to the left. A red reaction takes place on evapora- 
tion with concentrated Sulphuric Acid, or with Phosphoric or Hydrochloric 
Acids. This reaction is capable of showing the presence of as little as one-half 
of a millionth of a gramme [seven to eight millionths of a grain] of Andromedo- 
toxin. 

Andromedo-toxin is an enormously strong poison ; it paralyzes the periph- 
eral motor nerves ; death ensues through arrest of the respiration. — Lethal 
dose for frogs : one ten-ihousandth of a milligramme [one and one-half mil- 
lionths of a grain]; for pigeons .-one-tenth of a milligramme [one and one- 
half thousandths of a grain]. 

Andromedo-toxin is an extremely powerful Emetic ! 



Antipyrine (Di-meihyl-oxy-quinizine) , is highly useful as an Adjunct to 
Cocaine in Dental Anesthetization. It causes Anesthesia to set-in a 
little later than what it would on Cocaine alone, but prolongs its duration quite 
markedly. Consequently, the desired duration can thus be attained by a smaller 
dose of Cocaine than ordinarily ; whereby the danger of Cocaine-intoxication is. 
lessened ! — The approved formula for the combination is : 

Cocaine Muriate 0.04 gramme [0.6 grain]; Antipyrine 0.4 gramme [6 grains] ) 
Distilled "Water I gramme fit grains], 



44 MERCK'S BULLETIN. 

Apiol, solid (crystallized), — also called " Parsley-Camphor" ; —\h& 
Stearoptene of the Essential Oil of Apiiim petroselinum ; — acts as a Cere- 
bral Stimulant in doses of i gramme [15 grains] ; while in doses 3-4 times 
as great it exhibits all the effects characteristic of Quinine ! 



BetOl — C 6 H 4 (O H) C0 2 . C 10 H 7 — [Salicylo-beta-Naphthylic Elher] ; (Sa- 
licylate of Beta-Naphthol ; also called ' ' Naphthalol, " ' ' Naphtho-Salol, " "Sali- 
Naphthol " ). — White, lustrous, crystalline powder ; inodorous, insipid ; melt- 
ing at 95 C [203 F] ; nearly insoluble in both hot and cold Water or Glyc- 
erin ; little soluble in cold Alcohol ; easily so (1 in 3) in boiling Alcohol, — 
likewise in warm Linseed-oil. 

— The physiological and therapeutical peculiarity of Betol (which it shares 
with its congener, Salol, — Salicylo-Phenylic Ether) is, that it is inert and innoc- 
uous in the normal Gastric digestive process ; but as soon as it reaches the Alka- 
line fluids of the Intestinal digestion, it is by them decomposed into its constitu- 
ents: Salicylic Acid and Beta-Naphthol. 

On this property is based its therapeutic use as an Internal Antiseptic in 
various ailments involving Fermentative or Putrid processes of the Intestinal Tract. 

Kobert has also employed it with good effect, without untoward accesso- 
ries, in various Cystic Catarrhs, especially in Gonorrheal Cystitis, and in Articu- 
lar Rheumatism. — The Doses were of 0.3-0.5 gramme [4j-7£ grains], four 
times daily. They may, however, without incurring any risk, be increased to 
three or fourfold the weights just stated, whenever the nature of the case de- 
mands more energetic treatment. 

Betol is, therefore, to be considered a Non-toxic Succedaneum for Sodium 
Salicylate and for Phenol. 

Bismuth Oxy-iodide ("Sub-iodide"),— Bi 01,— a brown-red, 
amorphous, soft powder ; insoluble, insipid and inodorous; — combines the 
effects of Iodine and of the Bismuth preparations, and consequently is of great 
service — according to Lister, Reynold, and other authorities — as an Anti- 
septic in Suppurating Wounds, Ulcers, etc., to which it is applied directly, dry. 

It has also been employed successfully by Injection in Gonorrhea, — 1 part 
suspended in 100 of Water; and internally in Gastric Ulcerations and in 
Typhoid Fever, — about 0.3-0.6 gramme [4j— 9 grains] per day. 



Bismuth, peptonated. — Contains 3.8 per cent, of Bismuth in sol- 
uble form. — In Dyspepsia and Qastralgia, — about 5 grammes [75 grains], two 
ox three times per day. 






MERCK'S BULLETIN. 45 

Boldoin— C 30 H 62 O 8 .- Clucoside of the Boldo-leaves, from Peumus 
boldus, Tul., (Boldoa fragrans, Gay). — [Not to be confounded with the Alkaloid 
"Boldine, " from the same source ! ] — (The leaves of Boldo are stated to contain 
only about V 10 percent, of the Alkaloid, while they yield about 3 per cent, of the 
Glucoside.) 

As a Hypnotic, Boldoin is by Juranville pronounced to be more efficient 
than either Morphine or Chloral Hydrate. It has no untoward accessory 
effects and no disagreeable taste; it is an Invigorant, and stimulates the appetite. 
The sleep caused by it has the qualities of natural sleep, and the respiration in 
that sleep is regular. 

— It is mostly given in capsules, at the rate of 0.2 gramme (3 grains) per 
day; or subcutaneous ly in aqueous solution. 

— According to latest reports, Boldoin acts as a Local Anesthetic on 
Mucous Membranes,- — similarly to Cocaine. 



Caffeine Citrico-benzoate,- easily soluble, — and : 
Caffeine Citrate, — are both True Salts, — that is : chemical combi- 
nations ; not mechanical or physical mixtures ! 

Caffeine Citrate, taken half-hourly in 2-grain doses, is an efficient Ano- 
dyne in Nervous Headaches,— -very rarely requiring more than 3 doses. — Car- 
penter prefers it to Guarana, because it is not rejected by the stomach. 
— A well-approved formula is : 

Ammonium Hydiochlorate 3 grammes [46 grains] ; Morphine Acetate 0.0166 
gramme [| grain]; Caffeine Citrate 0.5 gramme [7.7 grains]; Spirit of Ammonia 1 
gramme [15 grains] ; Elixir of Guarana 32 grammes [1 ounce] ; Rose-water, the same. 



Calcium Phosphate, tri-basic, gelatinous. — This form of 
Calcium Phosphate is, according to Kopp, the most eligible prime material for 
the Lacto-Phosphate Syrups and allied liquid preparations. 



Camphor, Carbolized, (Phenol-Camphor),— an oily fluid, 
containing 3 parts of Camphor to 1 of Phenic Acid, — ^is used, in combination 
with a fatty vehicle, for Anodyne Inunctions in the Itching of Herpes, of 
Furuncles, in Pruritus vulvce, etc. 

- Subculaneously, it at first causes a burning sensation, followed by com- 
plete Local Anesthesia. 

— Internally, it is given in capsules containing 5-10 drops. 



4 6 M E R C K S BULL E T / A *. 



Creolin.— {Additional to Bulletin No. J:) — As an Anti-Parasitic and 

Antiseptic for the Intestinal Tract, it is highly recommended by Dr. Hiller 
(in No, 27 of the Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrifi) on account of its Non- 
Toxic and absolutely Non-Irritant qualities. 

It was found of excellent effect in Meteorism, Intestinal Stenose, Typhlitis, 
Ileac Catarrh, Chronic Intestinal Atony with Constipation, and Ileac Typhus. — 
Its mpid and certain action in suppressing the Fermentative processes was like- 
wise demonstrated in Acute Gastric Catarrh, in simple Diarrhea, and in Cholera 
Infantum. 

Dr. H. prescribes Creolin in doses of 0.3-0. 5-1,0 gramme [about 5-8-15 
grains], say three times per day, one hour after meals. On account of its dis- 
agreeable taste, it is usually exhibited in Gelatin capsules. (This form is, how- 
ever, to a certain extent a drawback in Infant practice, from the difficulty of in- 
ducing young infants to swallow the capsules.) 

It has also been used with entire success in Tcenia solium and Oxyurus 
vermicularis ; — 1 . gramme [1 5 grains], in capsules, three times a day, being 
employed. 

— Dr. M. Kortum makes good use of Creolin as a Non-toxic Hem- 
ostatic and Antiseptic in Uterine Atony post par turn. 

— According to recent observations by Dr. Behrings, of Bonn, the effect 
of Creolin is less marked in Albuminous fluids than in Non-albuminous. 



Cytisine — the Alkaloid of Cytisus laburnum (Golden Chain, or Bean 
Trefoil) — according to Prof. Kobert in Dorpat, is a very peculiar toxic sub- 
stance; acting principally on the Blood-pressure, which it augments in a very 
marked degree; without, however, therein influencing the Heart-actio?i to any 
notable extent. It appears that this remarkable effect is attained entirely by 
vascular contraction, proceeding from the Vasomotor centre in the brain, on 
which alone the drug acts directly. 

The Nitrate is the most favored of the Cytisine-salts. 

— Subcutaneously , in doses of 0.003-0.005 gramme [0.045-0.075 grain] 
per day, according to Krapelin, it acts very beneficially in the so-called Par- 
alytic Hemicrania. 

Diiaine, — C 22 H 30 N 2 4 , — an Alkaloid of Dita-bark, from Alsionia 
scholaris, Apocynece,—'\s an intensive Toxic, acting lethally on rabbits in doses 
of o. 1-1.15 gramme [1 J— 2^- grains], similarly to Curare, through paralysis of 
the Vasomotor nerves and the muscles, attended by reduction of blood-pressure. 



MERCK'S BULLETIN. 47 

Eth-OXy-Caffeine (Ethyl-oxy-Caffeine) ,— C 8 H 9 (0. C 2 H 5 ) N 4 2 ,- 

as a : 

Local Anesthetic by subcutaneous injection,— is in certain instances 
preferable to Cocaine; for the latter affects particularly only the nerves of sen- 
sation, while Eth-oxy-Caffeine exerts a powerful binding action also on the 
motor nerves. — A 3-per-cent. solution is employed, of which say 1 cubic centi- 
metre [about 16 minims] is injected, — according to T. Ceola. 

Internally, in Hemicrania, Dujardin-Beaumetz makes very successful use of 
the following formula : 

Eth-oxy^Caffeine 0.25 gramme [4 grains] ; Sodium Salicylate, the same; Cocaine 
Hydrochlorate 0.02 gramme [ 1 / s grain] ; Linden-flower Water (Aqua Tilise) " 
20 grammes [5| fluidrams] ; Maidenhair Syrup (Syr. Capillorum Veneris) 10 gram- 
mes [2 J fluidrams] .—To be taken at one time ! 



Ethylene Chloride (Bi-chloride), as an Anesthetic, is highly lauded 
by Dr. Raphael Dubois, who finds it vastly preferable to Chloroform, because, 
in his experience with it, a 10-per-cent. saturation was found sufficient to pro- 
duce a two-hours' narcose of calm character, free from any disquieting symp- 
toms. — (It causes, however, a transient (Edema of the Cornea, which latter, 
therefore, during the influence of the drug, exhibits a cyanotic appearance.) 



Geranium maculatum, (Cranesbi/l) : Fluid Extract — An As- 
tringent of superior virtue in Chronic Diarrheas, Cholera Infantum, Hemor- 
rhagia, Throat Affections, and Stomatitis. — Its active principle is Geranine. 

Its most decided action is reported to have been observed in Hemoptysia, 
which Shoemaker has entirely intercepted by 4-gramme [i-dram] doses of the 
Extract, repeated hourly. 

In Hemorrhages of the Kidneys or Intestines, 20 drops of the Extract are 
to be given four times per day. 

— Externally, a 30-per-cent. aqueous solution o{ the Extract is used in Vas- 
cular Eczema, Impetigo, and Pemphigus. 



Hyoscine \ Hydrochlorate! [ • — The Salts of Hyoscine are, according to 
( and Hydriodate ) 

Mitchell Bruce, the best Sedatives in Psychiatric diseases. They are 
usually administered subcutaneously, — o 0003 gramme [-g-J-Q grain] per injection. 
— Internally, the dose is of 0.0005—0.0013 gramme [ji-o-^o grain]. 



4$ MERCK'S BULLETIN. 

Dr. I. Salgo reports that I milligramme [-^ grain], injected hypodermi- 
cally, suffices to subdue raving maniacs within 10 minutes ; in ioo cases he 
found the application to fail but twice. 

The noted authority of Prof. Dr. Furbringer pronounces similarly in favor 
of Hyoscine. 

— In Ophthalmological practice, the Hydrobromate of Hyoscine is fast gaining 

ground ; because its action sets-in three times as rapidly as that of Atropine, 
and lasts longer. 

Indole — Q H 7 N — is found, along with Scatole, in human faeces, which 
derive a portion of their characteristic odor therefrom. — It has been recognized 
by Niggl, and, later on, by Zipperer, as the most sensitive distinctive test for the 
presence of so-called " lignined " or incrusted vegetable cells among pure 
Cellulose, — which test-object has in late years become of importance for the 
examination of paper or paper-pulp as to its enduring qualities. The Indole 
reaction herein is more distinct and pronounced than that of Aniline Sulphate 
or of Phloro-glucin. — -(Some of the fibers to be examined are introduced into 
a drop of aqueous solution of Indole resting on the object-plate of a microscope ; 
then covered by the top-plate ; then a drop of Sulphuric Acid of specific gravity 
1.25 is introduced by means of a strip of filtering-paper ; within a few minutes 
the lignined cells will become apparent by assuming a red color.) 

— For convenience and economy in such uses, the Merck brand of Indole 
comes put-up in tubes of o. 1 gramme [1 J grains] net. 



Iron Albuminate, dry, is an extremely efficient remedy in Anemia, 
and is particularly eligible in hot climates, in view of its stability. 

It is used with signal success in Beri-beri (an acute disease occurring especially 
in the East Indies, and characterized by great muscular debility, a painful 
rigidity of the limbs, and cachexy. ) 



ls-apiol — C 12 H 14 4 — was obtained by Ciamiccian and Silber from Apiol, 
by treatment with Alcoholized Potassa. — Cervelli and Lussana have investigated 
its physiological action, and found that it exerts a marked effect on the Vaso- 
motor system. The result of a dose of 0.2-0.4 gramme [3-6 grains], internally, 
after an hour's lapse, is a Stimulation of the Heart ; larger doses, say of 0.6-0. 8 
gramme [9-12 grains], occasion a discrete pulse, which lasts for several days. 
Accessory effects noticed were : Headache, and transient derangement similar to 
that of alcoholic intoxication. 



MERCK'S BULLETIN. 4$ 



IS-atropyl-CoC3ine, - C ]9 H 53 N 4 , — a secondary Alkaloid obtained 
in the manufacture of Cocaixe from Coca-leaves, — is described by C. Lieber- 
mann as an amorphous solid, turning the plane of polarized light to the left by 
29.03 , softening at 65 ° C [149 F], and decomposing at 90-100 C [194- 
212 F]. 

— According to Liebreich, the physiological action of Is-atropyl-Cocaine is 
eminently toxic, and may possibly form the cause of the toxical accessory symp- 
toms consequent on the administration of even slightly impure Cocaine. 

Is-atropyl-Cocaine is a strong Heart-poison, — resembling neither Co- 
caine nor Atropine in its effects. 



Jaborandi (Pilocarpus): Fluid Extract, — is recommended by 

Prof. Waugh in Erysipelas ; 20 drops every two hours until perspiration ensues. 
Then medication is suspended until the Erysipelas returns, whereupon the use 
of the Extract is recommenced as before. — This treatment has achieved remark- 
able successes since about two years. 



Jertlbebine is the Alkaloid of the Brazilian plant Solatium paniculatum 
{Jerubeba), which is in its native country employed as a remedy in affections of 
the Liver and the Milt, in Cystic Catarrh and in Anemia. — With us, it is chiefly 
lauded in Nervous Debility and General Prostration. As it is, however, usually 
exhibited in combination with Cocaine and Quinine, and other tonics, its own 
value as a Tonic is still undetermined. 



Load Caustic, [Plumbic Caustic), — a mixture of 80 parts Caustic 
Potassa with 20 of Lead Oxide, — is made into so-called Escharotic Pen- 
cils, which M. Bockhart uses for cauterizing Pointed Condylomata. 



Lipanin — an excellent new Succedaneum for Cod-liver Oil — con- 
sists, according to Prof, von Mering's investigations, of purest Olive Oil 
containing 6 per cent, of pure Oleic Acid. — According to O. Hauser, it is 
very readily taken and easily digested, and its action equals that of Cod-liver Oil 
in incipient Phthisis, in Anemia, in Tissue-waste, and in Convalescence from 
wasting ailments. 

Male Fern (Aspidium Filix mas)\ Extract.— This Extract has long 

been recognized as vastly superior to all other Taenifug'a. Its absolute non- 

poisonousness has enabled weak patients, as well as children, to take it without 
danger. 



50 MERCK'S BULLETIN. 



But not all rhizomes of Aspidium are equal in their effects; multiplied obser- 
vation has shown that those grown on ground formerly volcanic possess by far the 
strongest taenifugal action. (My special observation and experience on this 
point date back some dozens of years, and in consequence I am enabled to pre- 
pare an Extract of never-failing efficacy.) 

According to the Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift, frequent failures are 
observed with Male Fern Extract as a Taenifuge ; which failures are, by that 
journal, attributed to the employment of too old rhizomes in the preparation of 
the Extract. — The rhizomes employed by me according to the directions of the 
German Pharmacopeia are of a pistachio-green color inside ; and only the crop 
of each current year is used. 

The Dose appropriate for the Extract is commonly stated too low in the text- 
books of Materia medica; so for instance, Liebreich & Langgaard direct the 
same limits which were hitherto generally usual in practice; viz., 5-10 grammes 
[77-154 grains]; because no sufficient experimental basis for larger doses was 
extant — Now, Professor Liebreich (in Therapeutische Monaishefte: 1888; June) 
communicates a formula of high interest to practitioners, which he received from 
Prof. Gerhardt, as follows : 

"In Tcenia solium the dose of the Aspidium Extract should be of 10-12 
grammes [154-185 grains]; in Tcenia msdiocanellita, of 14-16 grammes [216-247 
grains]; — divided in Gelatin capsules of suitable size; less desirably in Water. — 
If no evacuation ensues spontaneously thereafter, a Cathartic of Calomel and 
Jalap is to be given one or two hours after the Fern. ' ' 

N. B. — A very essential direction regarding the dispensation of the Extract 
of Male Fern is that given by the United States Pharmacopoeia, as to shaking 
before use; for a possible sediment consists of Filicic Acid, which is the active 
constituent of the drug. 

MercurO-Succin-imide {Imido- Succinate of Mercury). — White, 
silk-like powder ; easily soluble in Water; without reaction on Albuminous fluids. 
According to Dr. Vollert (in Therapeutische Monatshefte : 1888 ; page 
401), this preparation forms an extremely valuable addition to the list of Mer- 
cury-salts suitable for Hypodermics. Its efficacy at hast equals that of the 
older Mercury preparations employed in subcutaneous Syphilidological treat- 
ment ; while it decidedly excels them in the following points : 

1, — Long-enduring Stability, of its solutions ; 

2, — Comparative Painlessness of application ; 

3. — Slightness of InfMralion at the point of injection. 



MERCK'S BULLETIN. 51 



Moreover, it is throughout easily borne, and is therefore especially well adapt- 
ed for ambulatory treatment (allowing patients to continue at their vocations). ■ 

— The Mode of Injection that has been demonstrated by experience as the 
most eligible is the following '. 

A syringe of 1 cubic centimetre [16 minims] capacity is filled with a 1.3 or 2- 
per-cent. aqueous solution of Mercuro-Succin-imide, — if necessary, with, the ad- 
dition of 0.01 gramme ['/ 6 grain] of Cocaine ; — and now the injection is applied, 
not in the cuticle, hut \n the subdermatic cellular tissue. Herein — according to 
A. Wolff— the observation of the following precautions will preclude the forma- 
tion of Abscesses : 

"The puncturing of the cuticle 'ad nates' is not to be performed in vertical direction ; 
but, a stout wrinkle cf the adipose 'ayer having been lifted -up by the fingers, the syringe-point 
is thrust into the wrinkle, in a direction parallel with the surface, until it has reached the 
middle of the cellular stratum, so that it shall not be too near the dermis, nor touch the 
subjacent muscular tissue. Then the liquid is slowly injected, while the wrinkle is being gently 
kneaded by the fingers holding it. After the injection is made, repeated passes with the 
fingers should be carried over the neighborhood, so as to distribute the injected fluid through 
the tissue." 

This operation— which should be preceded by a careful cleansing of the place of 
injection with Soap and Ether —is to be executed daily, alternating from the right . 
to the left buttock, and vice- versa. 

Dr. Vollert claims to have succeeded in every case, be it of recent or of long- 
standing Lues, which he treated with the above-named preparation ; and it was 
only in a few exceedingly obstinate cases that he found it expedient to combine 
an Inunction treatment with the Mercuro-Succin-imide injections. 



Mercury j / ^ an ' de i.^ | nd [ .—{Partly additional to Bulletin No. 4.) 

—These two Mercury-salts bid fair to come into marked prominence now; and 
recent experiences point especially to the Oxy-cyanide as being destined to 
supplant the Corrosive Sublimate. According to Chibret (in Comptes R,ndus : 
cvii ; 1 19) it is exhibited in solution of 1 : 1 500, and is tolerated far belter than 
the Bi-chloride. — Also for the disinfection of surgical instruments it shows a 
superiority to the Sublimate, in not attacking the metal, when used in solutions 
of same strength as the Sublimate. — In the disinfection ofbacterialized Peptone- 
fluid, it exhibited six times the Bactericidal force of the Bi-chloride ; that is, a 
solution of Mercury Oxy-cyanide of 1 in 12,000 acted equally to one of Mer- 
cury Bi-chloride of 1 in 2,000. 



52 MERCK'S BULLETIN. 

— In regard to the simple Cyanide, the report of Dr. Stellden (of which 
an abstract is given in No. 4 of the Bulletin), on his successful treatment of 
Diphtheria by means of this salt, distinctly states that no topical application by the 
brush was needed in the treatment described. 



Muira puama : Fluid Extract. — {Additional to Bulletin No. 3:) — 
The name of this extraordinarily potent Aphrodisiac indicates its character. 
In the Brazilian aboriginal vernacular, " Muira*' signifies "Wood," while 
' ' Puama " means " Potency. " 

In its native country (Brazil), the plant is used in the form of an Alco- 
holic Infusion of the root, stems and leaves; enjoying a most eminent reputation 
as a remedy for Rheumatism and for Impotency. 

— The botanical identity of this plant seems to be still a matter of doubt ; 
it has been suggested that ' ' Muira puama " might be identical with ' ' Mara 
puama," which is held to be the Liriosma ovala (Oleinece) of Miers. 



Naphthol, Alpha-. — Reported by Maximowitsch as an Antiseptic 

of extraordinary efficiency in hindering the development of pathogenic micro- 
organisms. — In solutions containing from 1 to 2\ parts of the drug in 10,000 
of liquid, it intercepts the propagation of the Typhoid and the Tuberculose 
bacilli ; while it is reported to be 700 times less active in specific physiological 
effect on the human organism than Mercury Bin-iodide. 

As to its Anti-Zymotic effect, — 1 part of Alpha-Naphthol to 10,000 of 
Glucose-solution prevents the latter from passing into Alcoholic fermentation ! 



Ouabain and Strophanthln,— (Additional to " Ouabain "in Bulletin 
No. 4/) — According to investigations recently made by E. Gley, the two 
Glucosides named above are related very closely in their chemical natures, and 
hold a correspondingly close mutual relation in their physiological actions. — 
Strophanthin is found to possess the formula of C 31 H 48 12 ; and Ouabain that 
of C 3 , H 46 ]2 ; — so that they appear as members of one common homologous 
series, — each member differing from the next by a constant increment or de- 
crement of C H,. — Both are Heart-poisons, intensifying the tension of the heart- 
muscle, and tending to maintain it in Systole. The lethal dose of Ouabain is 
stated at -fa milligramme [j^us g ram ] for frogs; at fa mgr. [-^-^ grain] for 
Guinea pigs; at \ milligr. [^u & ram ] f° r dogs or rabbits. The action is 



MERCK'S .BULLE TIN. 53 

most rapid with subcutaneous or intravenous injection. — Ouabain is more poi- 
sonous than Strophanthin ;— death from it results within 6 minutes to 1 hour 
after administration. 

[This seems to correct the older statement, based on the first-received reports, -- 
see Bulletin No. 4 ! — of the innocuousness of Ouabain per ^/—Editor.] 

N.B.— The spelling of the name "Ouabain" seems to be taken from French 
sources ; the same sound is given to the principal syllables of the word in German 
by the spelling " Uabain" as there adopted; and on the same phonetic principle 
the true English orthography for the same word would have to read: 
6i Wabain," 

Oxy-Propylene-di-ISO-Amyl-amine- a newly- discovered syn- 
thetic Alkaloid —is a colorless liquid, soluble in Alcohol, in Ether, and 
in fatty Oils. Its physiological action is similar to that of Atropine : in large 
doses it induces epileptic fits ; in moderate ones it is a powerful Heart-tonic 
and energetic Stimulant, — elevating both blood-pressure and temperature. . 



Parthenicine — an Alkaloid discovered by Dr. Carlos Ulrici, of Cuba, 
in a plant there native : Parthenium hysterophorus, (Bastard Feverfew) — forms 
large rectangular prisms, with pyramids on the four lateral sides. It is odor- 
less, very bitter; quite readily soluble in Water, — still more so, however, in Hot 
Water, in Alcohol, Ether, or Chloroform. It gives colored identity-reactions 
with Sulphuric Acid and with Potassium Bi-chromate. 

— Physiological experiment so far has shown that Parthenicine, in hourly 
doses of 0.05 gramme [f grain], possesses the power of assuaging Neuralgias ; 
and a case of Intermittent Fever has been cured by dosing at 1 gramme [1 5 grains]. 



Physostigmine (Eserine) in Veterinary Practice. — The 

Veterinarian Profession are indebted to Prof. Dieckerhoff, of Berlin, for 
researches which have demonstrated the high usefulness of the above-named 
Alkaloid in the Colic 0/ Horses. 

The term "Colic of Horses," as usually employed, includes several different 
degrees and kinds of ailment: — First, there is the Simple Constipation, with Intes- 
tinal Rheuma or Catarrh. It is to this form or stage of disease that the eminently 
beneficial action of Eserine especially applies, — accelerating the peristaltic move- 
ment and stimulating the intestinal secretions. — (But in the graver forms of 
disease, also sometimes included in the simple name of "Colic," — such as, 
Arterial Congestion, Intestinal Inflammation, Incipient Gangrene, -^serine is 
useless.) 



54 MERCK'S BULLETIN. 

The valuable Purgative effect of Eserine on horses is usually attained in 
the brief time of 30-45 minutes after its administration. 

In heavy constipations, combined with a more or less paralytic condition of 
the intestines, other purgatives must be used simultaneously with the Eserine. 

The Administration of Eserine itself should always be hypodermic ! - {or, as 
below indicated, intravenous). The dose per injection is of 0.1 gramme [1^ 
grains] in aqueous solution. The injection is best applied in the subcutaneous 
tissues of the upper part of the chest, or directly into the jugular vein. The 
application may have to be repeated after 3-4 hours, — according to the effect at- 
tained. 

The most favored form of Physostigmine (Eserine) for hypodermic use is 
its Sulphate Salt, which is readily soluble in Water. 

— Most of the EsERiNE-salts (including the Sulphate) are very hygroscopic ; 
and therefore, on keeping, they will conglutinate or ' ' bake. " (This phenomenon, 
however, — as explained in Bulletin No. 4.; under "Physostigmine," — is in no 
wise a sign 0/ deterioration ! j 

Quinidine (Conchinine) Tannate, insipid.— A white, tasteless 
powder; dosed in Dyspepsia, Diarrhea, Nephritis, and Albuminuria, at 0.3-0.8 
gramme [4^-1 2 -grains] twice to four times per day, for adults ; and o. 1-0.15 
gramme [ij-2j grains], four to six times, for children. 



Quinine Albuminate. — Light, whitish or yellowish-white scales ; in- 
soluble in Water ; soluble, however, in Hydrochloro-acidulated Water or in 
Solution of Pepsin. 

This is a chemical form of Quinine that is well borne even by very sensitive 
patients. 

Quinine Oleate. — Yellowish-grey, crumbling mass ; clearly soluble in 
Alcohol. — Contains 54 percent, of Quinine. — Highly eligible for Dermatic treat- 
ment, as the Oleates possess the faculty, when applied externally by inunction, 
of easily permeating the dermis, and thus acting through the skin on internal 
organs. 

Schinus molle, Terebinthinacece. (Anacardiece), is a tree indigenous to 
Chili and Peru, but naturalized at Cannes and Nice, in France. — According to 
Liotard, it contains in its seed-kernel, beside a certain resin, the Alkaloid 
Piperine,' which bears much resemblance to the constituents of Cubebs in its 
action, 






MERCK'S BULLETIN. 55 

According to Bertheraud, the fruit of this tree, deprived of its epicarp, 
powdered, and mixed with a little syrup, is formed into pills and thus used with 
remarkable success in Blenorrhea. 

Schinus molle being wholly free from the untoward accessory effects of 
Cubebs, its excellent action both in acute and long-standing Blenorrheas makes 
it a highly desirable medicament. 

— In the same class of cases it is preferable also to Kava-kava; for, possess- 
ing the same curative period, it is largely free from the marked diuretic effect of 
the latter drug. 

StrophanthUS. — {Additional to Bulletin Nos. i and 2 :) — Regarding 
the Botanical Species of the various commercial varieties of Strophanthus- 
seed, Blondel's exhaustive researches have shown that such a species as 
" Slrophanihus Kombe " does not exist ; what has been distinguished by that 
name hitherto is simply Strophanthus hispidus. — The suppositional species 
known as Strophanthus hispidus ; S. from the Niger ; S. Kombe ; S. minor ; — 
all pertain to one species, having acquired differences in external appearance 
merely by the different climatic and territorial conditions to which they had to 
adapt themselves. 

— Hence, it appears to be wholly immaterial which of the various com- 
mercial kinds of Strophanthus-seed be employed, provided that its yield of 
active amorphous Strophanthin be established. This alone determines the 
greater or less value of a given parcel of the crude Seed ; and the varying de- 
grees of effect noticed in Strophanthus Tincture are ascribable altogether 
to the mentioned differences in the yield of Strophanthin. 

Catillon showed, for instance, that a sample of seed labeled ' ' Strophanthus 
Kombe" yielded 16-20 per cent, of amorphous Strophanthin; while from 
another sample, labeled " Strophanthus hispidus," he could obtain but 12 per 
cent. 

{See, also : "Ouabain and Strophanthin," in present Bulletin! ] 



Tri-brom- phenol. — Soft, white crystals, of melting-point 95 ° C 
[203 F]; obtained by the action of elementary Bromine on aqueous Carbolic 
Acid. Readily soluble in Alcohol, Ether, or Chloroform ; less so in Glycerin, 
Phenol, Water, or Diluted Alcohol. 

According to Dr. F. Grimm (in Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift : 1887 ; 
j?), Trj-brom-phenol does not cauterize the mucous membranes of the mouth, 



56 MERCK'S BULLETIN. 

nose and pharynx, and is wholly indifferent to the dermis. Applied to fresh 
wounds in powder, it occasions a more or less violent burning sensation ; the 
traumatic surfaces are slightly cauterized, and their most superficial portion 
becomes mortified ; but the adjacent parts are never attacked in the least . Granulat- 
ing wounds are briskly irritated, — sometimes passing into slight bleeding; but a 
more profound disintegration never takes place. Hence, this substance may 
usefully be employed for sfanulaiing pale atonic granulations. 

Grimm also pronounces it an energetic and reliable Disinfectant in Puru- 
lent and Gangrenous processes. 

He recommends a 3-per-cent. or 2-per-cent. solution of it for impregnating 
Wound-dressing material; for Ointment preparations; for disinfecting the bacterio 
cultural Gelatin-solutions ; etc. , etc. (Cultures of Staphylococcus pyogenes, for 
instance, were destroyed within half an hour by a i-per-cent. solution of Tri- 
brom-phenol.) 

— Tri-brom-phenol, taken internally, enters into combination with the 
alkaline Intestinal secretions, and passes off through the urine in the form of 
Tri-brom-phenol-sulphonic A cid. 



U lex ine.— Alkaloid from Genista tinctoria (Dyers' Broom, or Waxen 
Woad). — Action similar to that of Curare. In frogs and eels, it paralyzes the 
Vagus and the Motor nerves; larger doses paralyse the Heart in mammiferous 
animals. The physiological action of moderate doses culminates principally in 
augmented Diuresis. — In Dropsies and Heart-diseases, Ulexine has been suc- 
cessfully given as a Diuretic. 

E. MERCK. 



MONTHLY hereafter! -(see notice on page 64.) 



MERC 



A Periodical Record o 




LETIN 



ntrodiictions, or Applications 



Moved by Profe 



ness- Interest. 



No. 6 of Vol. 1. DARMSTADT-LONDON-NEW YORK. Dec, 1888. 

Publication-office in New York City: 73 William St. — P. O. Box No. O 173. 



Subscription /—One Dollar per year.— Publication :— Bi-Monthly.— {Subscriptions begin at any time.) 

CONTENTS. Page. 

Acid, Camphoric— (Additional to Bulletin No. 4.)— In various affections of the Respiratory 
Tract ; also, of the Bladder \ e_ 

Acid, Chromic— Officially recommended by the Prussian War Department, as the best Preventive 
of Foot-Sweat ,.g 

Bismuth Salicylate, — when true basic ,— as very desirable in Gastro-Intestinal complaints of In- 
fants. — Caution as to its Chemical Character .' \ 58 

Cerium Oxalate, — as useful and harmless in muck larger doses than customary ! —As a Specif cm 

Sea-Sickness -q 

Ephedrine, Hydrochlorate.— (Additional to Bulletin Nos. 2 and 3.)— As a Mydriatic: inade- 
quate Succedaneum for Homatropine /—[Difference from its sister Alkaloid " Pseudo-Ephe- 
drine." ] . 6o 

6. The Kava-Resins, as the bearers of the medicinal virtues of Kava-root;— and Kavahin (Me- 

thysticin), as physiologically indifferent -....■ „ 63 

7. "Meco-narceine," — an arbitrary and indefinite Mixture, born of commercial speculation; a 

dubious addition to the Materia Medica 64 



Entered at the Post-Office, New York, as Second-Class Mail-Matter. 



Acid, Camphoric. — {Additional to Bulletin No. 4 :)— 
The topical applications reported-on before the Berlin Medical 
Society, which showed Styptic action on the mucous membranes 
within two minutes, were in some instances as weak as ^ per cent. 

The special cases for which particular strengths of solutions for 
topical application were recommended by the report, are as follows : 

1. In Acute Angina : %-i per cent., every three hours. 

2. In Acute and Sub-acute Pharyngo- Laryngitis and Tracheitis : % 
per cent., rising to 1 per cent., — by Spray. 

3. In Acute Coryza : 2 #, by Cotton- wool Tampon. — (Previously 
noticed !) 



58 MERCK'S BULLETIN. 

4. In Acute Bronchitis : 1-2 per cent. , by Laryngeal Douche. 

5. In Laryngeal Ulcers : 2-6 per cent., by Spray. 

Furthermore, Prof. Furbringer, in addition to his previous state- 
ments, reports cures of Cystitis combined with Ammoniacal Fermen- 
tation, by Cystic Injections of 2- c / solutions. 

Dr. M. Niesels confirms Prof. F. 's (previously noticed) views of 
Camphoric Acid as of a Mild, Non-irritant Antiseptic. 



Acid, Chromic,— as a Local Anti-Diaphoretic. — The Deutsche 
Medizinische Zeitung (page 914 of 1888) reproduces an Official Decree 
by the Royal Prussian War Department, recommending the use of 
Chromic Acid "as the best and most harmless Preventive of Foot- 
Sweat in Marching Troops." 

The application consists in merely once "painting" the sole, and 
the inner surfaces of the toes, with a 10-$ solution of the Acid, by 
means of a cotton-wool wad. (The dipping of the wad into the 
solution should be effected by a pair of cork tongs.) 

The effect is instantaneous. In medium grades of the sweating 
disposition, a few applications, at intervals of 6-8 weeks, suffice com- 
pletely ; in worse cases a repetition every 2 or 3 weeks maybe needed 
at first. 

When the cuticle is already broken by abrasion, etc., it is ad- 
visable to begin the treatment by using a 5-$ solution only, repeated 
daily, for some days in succession, until the dermis has regained suf- 
ficient compactness to bear stronger applications. 



Bismuth Salicylate. — By this name the Drug Market carries 
several preparations widely different in their chemical compositions, 
and consequently also in their physiological actions. — A True Basic 
Bismuth Salicylate, in order to possess the properties desirable for- 
ks specific medical uses, — especially to be borne by the Stomach with- 
out irritation, — must be a definite chemical combination, — not a mixture of 
an Acid Salicylate with Bismuthous Oxide; and its Salicylic Acid 
must therefore be chemically bound to the Base, so as not to be dissolved 
-out from the Salt by mere physical solvents, such as Ethylic Alcohol, 
Ethylic Ether, or Chloroform. 



MERCK'S BULLETI N. 59 

Basic Bismuth Salicylate Merck contains, by analysis, 6$ 
per cent, of Bismuthous Oxide in chemical combination with Sali- 
cylic Acid, and contains No Free Salicylic Acid. — Dr. E. Ehring, in 
the New-Yorker Medizinische Presse of Sept. 1888, reports on his expe- 
riences with this particular preparation of Merck's, especially in the 
most various Gastro-Intestinal complaints of Infants. 

A well-prepared Basic Bismuth Salicylate, — such as the one 
reported-on by Dr. Ehring, — as stated by him, is very desirable in 
the entire class of complaints named, for the following reasons: — It 
is at once an Astringent and an energetic Disinfectant; it is free 
from untoward accessory effects, and is readily taken by the young pa- 
tients; — thus, it can be used without harm during a protracted course 
of treatment. 

The most eligible form of exhibition is that of a Shake-mixture , — as fol- 
lows: — Bismuth Salicylate, Basic, 4 or 5 grammes [62-77 gra-in sj ; Water 100 
grammes [3 fi. oz. and 3 fi. dr.]; Glycerin 12-20 grammes [3 fi. dr. and 12 
minims to 5 fi. dr. and 24 min.]. — Tea- to Dessert-spoonful every 2 hours. 

The form of Powders is not so advisable; as irritations, and even Ecchy- 
moses, of the Gastro-Intestinal tract have been observed after their use. 



Cerium Oxalate, Cerous. — After being approved since a num- 
ber of years as a useful Sedative in Hemicrania, Vomiting of Pregnancy, 
Hysteria, in the Cough of Phthisis, and as a Soothing Astringent in 
Gastro-Intestinal Catarrhs, — Cerium Oxalate has again recently been 
very favorably reviewed by Dr. Gardner, of New York, in most of 
the directions named. He believes it to exercise, — besides its Topical 
action on the mucous membranes of the stomach and intestines, above 
indicated, — also a peculiarly Sedative action on the Vagus and Sym- 
pathicus nerves, whereby he explains its calming effect on the phthis- 
ical symptoms. In the various ailments above and hereinafter 
indicated, and discussed by him, he observed no ill effects from its use, 
even when as large doses as 1^2 grammes [23 grains] were repeated several 
times a day; while the average single dose recommended by the older 
authors varied from 0.05 to o. 15 gramme [^ of a grain to 2% grains]. 

The principally striking feature of Dr. Gardner's report, how- 
ever — (aside from his confirmation of the efficacy of Cerium 



6o MERCK'S BULLETIN 



Oxalate as a mild Internal Astringent and a Nervine, and the estab- 
lishment of its harmlessness in much larger doses than those formerly 
employed) — consists in his pronouncing it the best Specific against 
Sea-Sickness that has so far become known, when given in doses as 
large as 0.6-0.9-1.2 gramme [9-1 5-1 9 grains] every three hours, in 
a tablespoonful of Water. 



Ephedrine, Hydrochlorate. — (Additional to Bulletin JVos. 2 
and 3 :) — This Alkaloid-salt appears, as prepared by me, in colorless 
needles, melting at about (uncorrected) 210 C [410 F], easily soluble 
in Water; less so in Alcohol; insoluble in Ether. Its aqueous so- 
lution was found, by Mr. Kinnosuke Miura, of Tokio, Japan, — who 
made an extensive series of exact Clinical experiments on it, — to be 
permanent under the influence of light. 

The Simple Alkaloid, (discovered by Prof. Nagai), which is the 
base of the above-described salt, is also obtainable in colorless 
crystals. The Clinical experiences hitherto gathered do, however, 
invariably refer to its Hydrochloric Salt. 

- — (From other species of Ephedra than the one previously men- 
tioned as the source of Ephedrine, I have succeeded in isolating a 
different Alkaloid, which I have so far named "Pseudo-Ephedrine." 
Its Hydrochlorate is very readily soluble both in Water and in 
Alcohol. From an alcoholo-ethereal solution, it crystallizes in color- 
less needles or leaflets, which melt at about (uncorrected) 174-176 C 
[averaging 347 F].) 

The researches of Kinnosuke Miura with the True Ephedrine 
Hydrochlorate,— dating back to the year 1885, — first demonstrated 
its Mydriatic action, when applied externally, on frogs and mammals, 
and its Lethal effect, when given in sufficient dose internally, through 
arrest of the Heart-action and Respiration. 

The results of those first researches, made at Prof. Osawa's sug- 
gestion—and under his control, — are reported in a preliminary outline 
sketch by the above-named operator, K. M., in the following words: 

" 1. Preliminary Experiments on Frogs. — From 8 to ip milligrammes 
[about yi to l /e grain] were injected into the pericardium or lympheduct of 
average-sized individuals of Rami esctdenta. — Gradual retardation, and final 



MERCK'S BULLETIN. 61 

arrest, of Respiration; no accelerative period observed. Same effect on 
Heart-movement, which ceased in Diastole. — Dilatation of Pupils. 

"2. On Mammals (Rabbits, Dogs, Mice). — Both Respiration and Pulse 
were remarkably accelerated, and afterwards suddenly arrested, without pre- 
vious retardation. Clonic Spasms, and increased Temperature in rectum. 
Blood-pressure in the carotid at first diminished; then augmented beyond 
the normal, during the spasms ; then again rapidly dropping. Death by 
arrest of Heart-action and Respiration. — Dilatation of Pupils, both by Sub- 
cutaneous injection and by Instillation into the Conjunctival sac. 

"3. The Lethal Dose, hypodermatically, for Rabbits was 30 to 46 parts, 
and, for Dogs, 22 parts, to each 100,000 of the animal's weight." 

The Clinical Experiments on the Human Eye, with regard to 
the Mydriatic effects, were conducted in the Chirurgo-Ophthalmo- 
logical Clinique of Tokio University, under the direction of Prof. 
Scriba and Mr. Kono, in 1887. The results are outlined by K. M. s 
report as follows : 

(Experiments with Six- or Seven-per-ce?it. Solutions yielded rather 
unequal effects on different individuals. A number of patients under- 
went the application of such solutions to the Eye, from 1 to 4 times 
[repetitions after 10-15 minutes' intervals]. Dilatation of the 
Pupil ensued in most cases, but not in all, — and after rather unequal 
lapses of time.) 

Experiments with a Ten-per-cent. Solution, applied to the Eye, 
on the contrary, yielded much more exact, uniform, and reliable results. 
The effects from these applications showed almost identical degrees of 
intensity in the majority of the cases treated, — among which cases 
were both, a number of healthy subjects, and a number of sufferers 
from various Ophthalmic complaints. 

There were 18 cases thus treated by instillation of 1-2 drops of 
the 10-$ solution, and closely observed. Dilatatio?i of the pupils of 
both eyes ensued in each case, after a lapse of from 40 to 60 minutes. 

The Dilatation was of the same magnitude in both eyes, whenever 
the Refraction was the same in both, and provided no inflammatory 
symptoms were previously present. The Dilatation was not of the 
possible maximum, but amply sufficient to afford a convenient survey 
of the entire surface of the Retina, on a vertical presentation. — Strong 



62 MERCK'S BULLETIN, 



impact of light would in all these cases occasion a slight reaction in 

the pupils. 

Suspension oi the Accommodation was either barely, or not at all, 
perceptible; likewise, no augmentation or diminution of the intra- 
ocular pressure could be shown. 

Children and aged persons proved more susceptible to the drug 
than vigorous individuals. — An irritated and inflamed Iris precluded 
any definitely appreciable dilatation. 

The duration of the Dilatation, from the moment of application 
until the return of the perfectly normal state, varied from 5 to 20 
hours ; while, under precisely similar circumstances, cases treated 
with a 1-$ solution of Homatropink required 69 hours for the com- 
plete restoration of the pupil. — Untoward accessory effects, such as 
Conjunctivitis, etc., were not observed, even after protracted treat- 
ment, — lasting as long as a fortnight in some cases. (One patient, 
for instance, underwent three instillations per day of the 10-fo solution 
for 15 days, without experiencing the slightest evil effect.) Alto- 
gether, therefore, it is very well borne by the patients. 

— ("With some of the patients treated as above described, Special Experi- 
ments were made as to the degree of Suspension of Accommodation observable. — 
With 3 of these patients, no such suspension was observed at all ; a fourth 
individual exhibited a lengthening of the minimal focal distance by only 15 
millimetres [nearly 0.6 of an inch]. Two of these patients underwent the 
instillation 3 times each, at intervals of 10 minutes ; two others suffered it 7 
times each, at like intervals. — Neither of these required a longer period for the 
return of the normal pupil dimension, than above stated, — that is, 20 hours 
at the longest !") 

From these evidences, Kinnosuke Miura infers that True Ephe- 
drine Hydrochlorate may be considered a convenient+'M.ydria.tiCy 
and an adequate and desirable Succedaneum for Homatropine in ex- 
aminations of the Fundus of the Eye. 



— (As for the physiological action of " Pseudo-Ephedrine," — 
which Alkaloid was mentioned further above, — Prof. Kobert, of 
Dorpat University, is at present investigating it.) 



MERCK'S BULLET IN. 63 

The Kava- Resins, and Kavahin (or Methysticin). — Kava- 

kava, or Ava, — the name by which the root of Macropiper methysticum 
is known to the natives of several Polynesian island-groups, where 
the plant is indigenous, — signifies, in the native idiom, "exceedingly 
sharp-tasting"; while the specific part of its botanical name indicates 
its intoxicating qualities when prepared as it usually is by the 
Polynesians.— It appears that the well-known, peculiarly sedative and 
benumbing character of the Kava intoxication, as contradistinctive to 
that of Alcohol, for instance, justifies the conclusion that those in- 
toxicating qualities whose regular use by the Polynesian natives first 
attracted the attention of physicians to the plant, are not alone due to 
alcoholic fermentation induced by the native process of preparing the 
juice, but also to an organic principle contained in the plant. The 
same principle which appears to bear the main part in the intoxication 
symptoms, is probably also the one which at first occasions the sharp, 
biting taste on the tongue that procured the plant its aboriginal 
name,— and which afterwards leaves the tongue almost devoid of sensa- 
tion for a certain time. 

Meanwhile, it has not yet been determined whether the dis- 
tinctively pronounced Diaphoretic and Diuretic effects, to which the 
high estimation of the root among the South-Sea Islanders as an 
Anti-Gonorrheic and Anti-Cystitic is due, are occasioned by the 
same organic principle which causes the previously-named effects, 
or by a different substance. But the fact has been established that 
the various medicinal virtues of the Kava-root are pretty fully concen- 
trated in the two peculiar Resins first isolated from the root by Lewin, 
and which are also prepared by me: 

Alpha-Kava-Kava-Resin, and 
« Beta-Kava-Kava-Resin. 

They present all the specific effects of the Crude Drug Kava, as 
Local Anesthetics, when brought in contact with the Conjunctiva, 
the Cornea, the Tongue, etc. 

— In contradistinction hereto, the crystalline, odorless and insipid 
Neutral Principle Kavahin or Methysticin, which has been isolated 
from the same root, beside the Resins mentioned, is reported by 
Lewin as possessing no physiological action. It is obtained in the form of 



64 MERCK'S BULLETIN. 

silky, resplendently white needles, soluble in Alcohol and in Ether, 
and melting at 130 C [266 F]. — Its chemical nature was established 
in 1888 by C. Pomeranz as that of a derivative of the Methylenic 
Ester of Pyro-catechin. 



MecO a narceine." — Little as is known, thus far, of the actual 
constitution of this substance, — so much appears to be settled, that 
it is not by any means a clearly definable natural constituent, or 
natural group of constituents, of Opium, but merely an arbitrary and 
indefinite product, consisting of a mixture of Narceine with several other 
Opium constituents ; which mixture is said to possess a higher degree 
of solubility than Narceine alone. — According to Laborde's statements 
before the Academy of Medicine at Paris (France), — which, how- 
ever, were questioned on the spot, — " Meco-narceine " is described 
as a very efficient internal medicament in Insomnia, Morphinism, and 
Bronchial Affections. But, in view of the utterly vague and uncertified 
nature of its composition, — owing to the total absence of both qualitative 
and quantitative data as to its constituents, — any statements made as to 
its Dosage and Effect's must be considered equally unreliable for 
practice.— In fine, on the grounds stated, "Meco-narceine" must be 
considered an offspring of commercial speculation, — and an addition 
of but dubious value to the Materia Medica. 

E. MERCK. 



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the " Bulletin " will be issued every month; no change taking place 
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